25 Hrs – Ch 19 – Wings/Center Spar Attach

Wing AlignmentI hauled the center spar out of the basement and rearranged the garage to prep the spar and wings for match drilling.

I spent all day Sunday getting the wings aligned to the spar, with little luck.  Every time I fix one thing, it causes something else to be off.  In trying to keep the waterline on the wing completely level, my hard points are not matching up.  Thinking that I will have to add some dihedral into the wing to get things to line up, but will sleep on it before I commit to it.

Wing Span in GarageAfter getting a warm fuzzy from Dennis, I continued with aligning the wings to the center spar.  I ended up having to add a little dihedral into the wings to get the hard points to match up correctly.  At the outboard ends of the wings, the waterline is .9” – 1” higher than the 17.4” waterline.  The plans state that the dihedral is a non critical component for alignment, and this is a minor change in the wing angle, so I am not concerned.  I Bondo’s the wings to the spar, and drilled my ¼” holes through the wing hard points.  Ron White stopped by to check on my progress and gave me a few tips.  It’s always good to hear that things are looking good.

Wing Spar DrillingRon had a 5/8” bit with a ¼”pilot at the tip that he loaned me for match drilling the holes between the Center Spar and the Wings.  I spent most of the night drilling out the hard points.  I had to switch from my cordless drill to my larger electric drill, and even then, the motor was getting pretty hot!

I spent some time removing the bondo from the wing/spar.  I attempted a dry fit, but I had to raise the wings and spar about 12″ so I would have room to insert the bolts, then spent several hours cutting the bushings to length.  I was sure to number them all, and positioned them so the number on the bushing was positioned top center for consistency.

I had to repair a delamination on the inboard right wing hard point with 1 ply BID and peel ply before floxing the bushings in.

Sanded the outside cadmium coating off the bushings, and floxed them in place in the wings and spar.  Placed the bolts in place and tightened up with Nylon washers, so flox will not stick to them.  I will check after cure, but it appears that I will need 1 extra washer on the left-lower-outboard bolt to make up for the 0.3 degree difference between the wing and spar.

After cure, I removed the bolts and found some flox oozed on to the bolts and threads, which made some of them hard to get apart.  After removing the flox, I reassembled everything with the correct hardware (minus the AN nuts) and checked for level again.  Still looks like I will need an additional “L” washer in the Left-Lower-Outboard bolt as a shim, as first thought.  Then I put a foam plug in the front of the spar for the inboard holes with 2 ply BID, and added the 1 BID on the aileron inboard wing hole that I still needed.  Finished with peel ply.

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90 Hrs – Ch 19 – Ailerons

Cutting the AileronsCut the ailerons out per the dimensions.  Here is where I come to find out that the peel ply that was put on during the wing skinning has now become my nemesis.  I apparently screwed up the placement of this in three different ways (my all time best).  (1) I took one of the measurements (outboard)from the very end of the aileron, instead of 12″ inboard from the end.  This places the peel ply further into the wing than you want.  (2) I put the peel ply on the wrong side of the Ailerons Cut Outhotwire opening, which puts the peel ply in the aileron, instead of in the wing.  (3) I put micro on the whole wing before putting the peel ply on, which makes getting the peel ply off almost impossible!

I augured out the foam and tried getting the peel ply out, which only worked for the top side where the hinges attach on the left wing.  The top of the right wing is the part where the peel ply is in the aileron, so it just needed the micro to be sanded off.

Peel Ply in AileronAfter talking with Dennis for advice, I sanded the section with the stuck peel ply the best I could with a Dremmel tool and sanded down the foam smooth on the edges.  Dennis also recommended sanding down the foam inside the trailing edge rib to give more space for the counter weight.  When asking about the peel ply stuck in the aileron, Dennis said not to worry about that one, since there is a BID ply that wraps around the counterweight and attaches to fiberglass on either side, so I won’t have to worry about delamination at that point.  Hallowed out the side ends of the opening and rounded the opening for the aileron torque tube.

Floxing Weight on the AileronSince I decided to wait to glass the trailing edge spar til the weekend, I went ahead and started on the aileron.  Started by removing the foam sliver to attach the steel rod to.  In talking to Dennis, he warned me not to take any more off than needed.  The plans say 3/8″, but Dennis recommends 1/4″ instead.  You will need to sand a little more foam out of the trailing edge spar area for clearance.  Instead of putting the TE of the aileron in foam to micro the steel rod to, I laid the aileron down on my table with the edge on a strip of duct tape for release.  Placed 2 screws behind the trailing edge in the table (not the aileron) to act as a back stop for applying pressure.  Then I micro’d the slit where I removed the 1/4″ foam, and placed screws in the table behind the steel bar to keep the bar from coming off.  Wedging a single Popsicle stick between the screw and the steel bar, seemed to be the perfect amount of clamping pressure.

Wing Rib 2Glassed the inside of the TE spar.  3 Plies BID, 1 extra BID at the hinge locations (per plans).  The ends of the aileron cutout are also glassed at this time.

Aileron Hinge GapAfter trimming the last layup, I marked and cut the hinge depressions.  I then turned my attention to the aileron, where I created the depressions for the metal hinge plates and for the A10 torque tube.  I took the Wayne Hicks approach, and 5min epoxied an angle straight edge to the hardware to ensure all the hinges will be on the same plane and not get any binding.  Once Torque Tube Openingit was secured, I 5min epoxied the A10 torque tube behind the hinge plate.  Once all the hardware was secured, we micro’d all the metal parts onto the aileron.  Used some clamps and weight to keep things tight to the aileron.  Performed the same for the other aileron.

Glassing Front of AileronThe skin protruded slightly from the foam and hinge plates, so I took my long sanding board and sanded it down and also rounded the fiberglass edge at the same time.  Micro’d the foam, and added 1 layer BID on the ailerons.

Glassing Ends of Ailerons

Routed out the .4″ of foam in the ailerons and had to use the Dremmel to file down some of the micro to get the depth.  Glassed the ribs of the ailerons with 2 ply BID.

Attaching Hinges to WingI cut my angle iron down to fit inside the aileron opening.  I bondo’d the hinges on the inside  of the angle iron after marking the correct positions.  This allowed me to run the machined edge of the hinges along the inside corner of the angle iron, and insure all the hinges are in perfect alignment.  Then I took the assembly to the wing and c-clamped the hinges in position.  Drilled the #30 holes, and then opened to #12 per plans.  Hold in place with clecos and checked movement of the hinge assembly.  Not too bad.  I do notice that the inboard hinges binds a slight bit, so I Attaching Hinges to the Aileron for Drillingwill have to investigate.  (Just needed a little sanding of fiberglass to flatten.)  Started to line up the aileron, but I need to sand down some glass to get the counterweight to clear the aft wing edge.  Long tedious process.

Installed the ailerons into the openings with boards clamping them into position.  Then I used the hacksaw blade trick to align the hinges to the correct location on the ailerons.  Then I mixed up some bondo and put dob on the hinge half to adhere it to the aileron.  This method gives me plenty of time to mix and apply the bondo, rather than the other ways I’ve seen where you have to hurry to get the aileron aligned before the Riveting Hinges to Aileronbondo or 5min epoxy dries.  Since the bondo is only being held on at the edge of the hinge, be sure to let the bondo cure fully.  I did not on the first attempt and my hinges fell off when I removed the aileron.  Then I started drilling my 1/8″ rivet holes.  I started with 2 cheap non-aviation rivets in each hinge to begin with to check fit.  Assembled the whole assembly and checked for binding.  All was good, so I drilled the rest of the holes, and drilled out the cheap rivets to remove the hinges.

Prepared the hinges and used the Alumiprep and Alodine to protect the aluminum.  Removed the hinge pins for this process.

Sanded the hinge half that was receiving flox and the hinge pads on the ailerons.  Applied wet flox to the hinges, and riveted them in place permanently, using tape to protect the hinge pin area from getting any flox.  Cleaned up the excess flox, and had to cut the tape out from behind the hinges, as it wouldn’t come out.  Checked hinge movement one final time, and set aside to cure.

Checking Aileron FitPut the ailerons in and started checking my gaps.  Plans say they should be at .08 to .2.  I was shooting for about .12.  Normally I would want to keep at the minimum distances, but there have been issues in the past with the counterweight catching on the wing in high G turns.  There was an extra ply of BID added to the hinge locations to solve this years ago, but I figured no sense in tempting fate.

Attaching Bearing Rod to Torque TubeFinished adjusting the gaps, and then started working on the aileron controls.  Drilled the holes in CS151 and the universal joint.




Right Wing Controls

Aileron Torque Tube OpeningFitted the aileron, but ran into clearance issues with the bolt in the outside side of the universal joint.  The plans show that bolt as opposite direction as the inboard side, but Dennis confirmed they should both be running for/aft to line up with the oblong hole in the wing.  Now I was able to mount the aileron, but wasn’t able to get full motion with the bolt hitting.  Used the die grinder to auger out the foam some more.  Ended up having to auger all the way to the bottom skin, and I’m still not sure if I am rubbing.  Doesn’t sounds like it, though.  Ron will be coming over sometime soon to take a look, and he suggested getting the bearing floxed in place first, and then see where I am.

Aileron Bearing - Clickbond InstallAileron Bearing - Clickbond Install 2

Floxed the clickbonds for the spherical bearing in place, after adding a couple extra plies of BID for reinforcement.  Clamped in place with some wood blocks.  Also added the replacement BID over the inboard hard point and peel ply’d.  Added BID 2 Ply over the clickbonds for the spherical bearing.  Used some lipstick on the boot of the U-joint to see where it was rubbing, then used the die grinder to grind into the skin from the inside.  Will need to add a BID on the outside surface and 1 layer on the inside to help reinforce, but the U-joint no longer rubs on the skin.

Patching Unused HolesThe holes I drilled into the wing for mounting the brackets was .4″ off and CS128 would not clear the wing root.  Moved the brackets .4″ inboard and everything fit much better.  I will need to patch up the unused holes with flox and 1 BID to fix.  Also realized I need to order some additional parts like (4) M4 rod ends and associated hardware.  Will finish up once it arrives.Aileron Control Hardware

It’s been a busy month, and garage time was a little scarce.  I tried to get in the garage as much as possible, and fussing with the aileron control hardware has been a slow process…  I did receive the replacement hardware, but the AN4 holes in the CS128 brackets are tripping me up again.  When using the wide area AN4 washers in place of the AN3 variety, it adds too much to the diameter and interferes with the wing.  To solve this, I Aileron Control Hardware 2drilled out the wide area AN3 washers to fit.  Assembled all the hardware to find that the vertical bolt connecting CS128 bell crank to the rod end is rubbing on the lower CS127 bracket.  In searching other sites, this appears to be somewhat common.  I was able to elongate the mounting holes for the lower CS127 bracket, so it sit lower, which gave me more clearance.  With everything mounted correctly, I adjusted the rodends so everything is 90 degrees with the ailerons in trail (per plans).  The Cozy Girrrl CS128 are nice in that they have a center hole drilled in them so you can run along AN3 bolt through them for this alignment.  Clamped the ailerons in an in trail position.  The plans have you drill the hole through CS152 and the CS132 bell crank at this time to lock everything in position, but if you get the CS152 and CS132 parts from the Cozy Girrrls, that hole is predrilled, so you have to figure out how to drill through CS151 and CS152 instead.  I ended up putting a dab of 5min epoxy on the lip of CS152 before slipping it into CS151 and bolting everything into position.  After cure, I removed everything, used electrical tape to ensure the tubes wouldn’t move out of position, and drilled the hole.  Added the bolt, and reassembled everything for a perfect fit.  At this point I noticed the rivets on the rod end rubbing, and smoothed everything out in preparation for 2 layer glass BID.  Prepped the area in the aileron wing root for new glass.

Aileron Torque Tube Opening GlassedGlassed 1 layer inside the aileron torque tube hole, and 1 layer over the pushrod clearance area.  Than added 1 layer over the CS127 attach bolt holes, and added flox from the other side to close up the unused and elongated holes.  Re-drilled the elongated holes at the proper position after cure.

Floxing Clickbonds for Aileron AttachFloxing Clickbonds for Aileron Attach 2

Used the Dremmel to rout out the aileron hinge holes to make room for the click bonds.  Used the grinder to dent the edges of the clickbonds to prevent spinning, cleaned with acetone, and installed into the wing with flox.  Covered with 1 ply BID and peel ply.  After cure, I had to wallow out the holes on the hinges for easier removal.

Left Wing Controls

Drilled out the hole in the wing root with a uni-bit, and cleaned up with the Dremmel.  Had to grind out the aileron torque tube hole to clear the bolts on the u-joint.  After verifying clearance for travel, I cut the torque tube to length.  Knowing that the plans are not accurate in the placement of the CS127 brackets, I did not us the measurements as gospel.  Instead, I started by measuring 6″ out from the inside wing root face, which is where the center of the bolt going through the bearing should be.  Transferred the mark to the front face and drew a vertical line for the outboard bolts.  I then used the measurements from the plans for how high to drill the upper bolts, and used the holes in CS127 to get the spacing correct.  Then I proceeded to drill the fop 2 holes only and fastened with bolts.  I bolted my rodends at this time so I can check washer clearance for the inside root face, and bolt clearance on CS127.  The bolt to CS127 clearance was thin, so I spread the CS127 brackets apart a little to add some clearance.  Once it all looked good, I could shine a flashlight on the inside and see where the light shines through, and marked the holes for drilling.  Drilled the holes and fastened everything together.  The rod wouldn’t clear the fiberglass, like on the right wing, so I augured it out with the die grinder.  Everything now seems to be clear.

Finished prepping the surfaces for glass, and glassed my modifications.  There was also an air bubble on the inside hard point, so I ground it down and put a new layer of glass on it, making sure to put some saran wrap on it to help keep it down.  Put 2 layers of BID where the clickbonds will mount,m and floxed them in place while mounted in the bearing.  Clamped in place, and peel plied everything I could.

I did end up having some clearance issues on the u-joint area.  I tried the lipstick trick on the bolt heads and u-joint, but no luck.  I could still only get 18 degrees up aileron.  Took all the torque tube hardware off, and I was able to get 28 degrees.  Then added pieces back on one at a time until I found the culprit.  Ended up being the bolt (tread end) on the inboard side of the u-joint.  Augured out some foam, and we were back at 28 degrees.  Set up and drilled the hole for the rodend and CS152 like the right side.  Then prepped and glassed over the clickbonds for the root end spherical bearing.  Covered in peel ply, then saran wrap and mounted the bearing back in place til cure.

After adding the glass for the clickbonds, the thickness buildup was too much to connect the bolt hardware.  I had to re-drill the hole through the torque tube to get the proper clearance.

Now that the torque tube is corrected, I was able to install the click bonds for holding the aileron in place.  Routed out an indentation on the top of the wing, installed the clickbonds from the top with flox, and covered with 1 ply BID.  After cure, I pried the aileron off the clickbonds, and again had to wallow out the holes on the aileron hinge so they would remove easily.

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85 Hrs – Ch 19 – Wings (Left)

Time to repeat all the steps again for the left wing.  Started by cleaning up the jigs and setting them up on the table.  Then I glued the wing root wedge back on to the inboard wing section (FC1) with Micro.  Did the same for the wedge that was cut out to gain access for hot wiring the aileron torque tube area.

Positioned all the foam cores in the jigs to verify fit.  Then glued FC1, FC2, and FC3 together with micro.

Attached Depression GlassedCut out the depressions on the top and bottom of the wing for the bolt access.  Then glassed with 2 ply BID.  Trimmed at knife cure and micro’d in the 3 hard points, LWA4’s and LWA6.  It’s worth noting when working on the left wing, the drawings are all backward.  I already knew this, but it is easy to get distracted and forget you have to be thinking backwards when looking at the Micro'd Hardpointdrawings.  That being said, I accidentally cut out LWA6 on the bottom side, rather than the top.  Luckily I noticed it right away, and not when drilling the holes to match it to the spar.  Kim cut out a replacement plug to fill the hole, while I cut the LWA6 into the correct position.  Micro’d in the plug, and secured all the pieces with nails till cure.

Sanded down the foam at the rough edges, and rounded the corners of the spar cap.  Taped off all the edges and hung paper to protect the foam.  Then cut out all the pieces of fiberglass in preparation of tomorrow’s layup.

Hardpoints AddedCompleted the shear web layup.  Applied 2 layers UND full span, 2 layers 2/3 span, and 2 layers 1/3 span, with every other layer alternating in direction.  Added the 3 layer BID pad over the hard-points, and added LWA2 & LWA3, and weighted for cure.  Peel ply’d the layup.

Glued FC4 & FC5 onto FC2 & FC3 using micro.  Verified the gaps for the spar trough and weighted the foam.

Spar Cap GlassingFaired in the foam joints with a sanding block to even them out.  Taped and papered the other edge of the spar trough and added the dams in preparation of the spar cap layup.  Sanded the trough, vacuumed, and set up the spar tape dispenser.  Completed the spar cap layup, and peel ply’d.

Adding NAV AntennaSanded the depressions for the NAV antenna, making sure to have a 20 degree angle and not more than 1cm distance betweenAdding NAV Antenna the poles.  Micro’d in place so I don’t have to mess with it during the skinning.  Also used micro to fill in the foam joints the rest of the way, using masking tape to keep it off the foam.

Skinning Left Bottom WingFinished prepping for skinning the wing by vacuuming the entire surface and cutting the fiberglass pieces.  Glassed the wing bottom same as on the right wing.  2 UND and extra 2×4 UND and 12″ x 12″ UND by wing root, and BID triangle at the wing tip.  Peel ply’d everything.  Knife trimmed and troweled micro into the trailing edge.

Sanded down the trimmed edges, including the trailing edge.  Then sanded down the pile of micro that was added into the trailing edge divot.  Added the jig pieces to prepare for turning, and used bondo to hold it together.

Turned the wing over and leveled.  Seemed that the edges of the spar trough were not sighting flat, so I investigated.  There seems to be a small hump at the foam joint (outboard).  I ran a string for both the leading and trailing edges, and while I tweaked them a little, they were nothing like I was seeing at the joint.  I will have to sand it down a little to fair it in, but shouldn’t be a big deal.  Certainly wont affect the spar cap.  Sanded the trough, added the dams, vacuumed, and set up the tape dispenser.  All ready for the morning when Dad gets here to help.

Spar Cap for Left Wing TopFilled the trough with fiberglass tape.  Used a couple (2) more layers than plans recommended to fill the trough.  Lost power while adding peel ply, so we got pretty lucky we were finishing up.  It was also lucky that it was fairly warm out, so we could open the door for light.  Many thinks to Dad for coming down to help!

Left Wing Trailing EdgeSanded off the boat tail on the trailing edge and sanded down to the rest of the surface.  Pulled off the peel ply to find the trailing edge coming off in pieces on the very edge.  In consulting with Dennis, this sometimes happens, and he gave me some suggestions.

Drilling Conduit at Wing RootMarked and routed out the channel for the rudder cable.  Used a drill to auger out the portion on the end past the micro line.  Ready to micro in place.  Finished prepping the wing for tomorrow’s layup and micro’d the rudder cable conduit into the wing.

Glassing Wing TopSkinned the top of the left wing similar to the right.  Since the trailing edge broke off when pulling off the peel ply, I finished with putting a straight edge on the trailing edge after skinning, so I can cut a nice straight edge when cured.  (suggestion from Dennis)Straight Edges Clamped on Top Skin

Trimmed the layup and cleaned up the edges.  Attached the level board.  (For some reason, I decided to sand the inboard end after cleaning up the edges, so I lost my level line for reference.  to Fix this, I traced a pattern of the foam core template with the level line.  Matched it up to the inboard end of the wing and transferred the marks.)  Then started hollowing out the foam for the inboard rib.

Glassing Inboard Wing RibGlassed the inside of the inboard wing root with 3 plies BID.  Started by glassing everything but the forward face, then glassing the forward face separately and following up with 3x BID tape.  Finished by clamping in the LWA7 hard-point.  The hard-point sticks over the edge of the hard-point that is below it a little, so hopefully that doesn’t cause any clearance issues when the bolts are fitted.  Time will tell…

Inboard Wing Rib GlassedCompleted the 2 UND strips around the attach depressions, and then the 3 BID to make the inboard wing root.  Added 2 ply BID over the hard-point inside the inboard wing root.  Finished up with peel ply.

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99 Hrs – Ch 19 – Wings (Right)

Foam Gluing Foam BlocksThe second most asked question, right behind “How long until you’re flying?”, is “Have you started the wings yet?”  As of 10/17/12, I can answer YES!  I drug all the foam out of the basement, took some measurements, and glued them all together using “Great Stuff” expandable foam (red & yellow can).  Per Dennis Oelmann, spray it on the edge of one side, making an “S” pattern all the way to the end, keeping about 1.5″ of open foam between.  Set the connecting piece on top and move it back and forth to collapse the spray foam and get a nice even coating.  Make sure the foam is aligned correctly and add weight and nails to keep from moving.  Note that you want to use a lot of weight.  Even though the foam looks like it is done expanding, it has really only slowed down.  Lots of weight will keep a tight joint for happier hot wire cutting.  As it turned out, I had used a full can for one wing, where Dennis can get both wings out of one can.  They still turned out great, regardless.

Dennis and Chad HotwiringDennis showed up to cut out the wing cores.  We started by cutting the blocks to the correct angle and size.  Added scrap where the plans say to add scrap to prepare to cut the cores.  Cut the cores out using the templates.  Dennis has done this so many times, he can pretty much do it in his sleep.  He told me he has completed 67 sets of wings, so I’m certainly not questioning any of his methods.  It was an all day event, but they turned out great!  Micro’d all the loose pieces on the inboard right wing to glue them together.  Added nails, weighted, and let cure overnight.

Wing Cores Being GluedGlued the right wing cores together, being sure to align everything as perfectly as possible.  The inboard section had to be raised about 1/4″ in the jig to match up the angle.  Dennis said that is pretty common, so I proceeded with gluing the cores with micro.  Secured with nails.  The joint between the center and outboard cores was off slightly, so I will need to sand flush.

Wing Bolt CutoutsMarked the cutouts on the wings for LSA4 positions.  Then marked for inserting the LWA6 and cut out.  Used a hole saw at the bottom, and cut up to the shear web from there, being sure to leave a lip for the LWA4’s to rest on.  After cutting the recess for the LWA4’s, I cut out the recess for LWA6.  Started cutting the W18 pieces, but need a little practice to get the bends right.  Start by cutting a strip of 2″ thick aluminum, lay in place, and mark the locations for the bend (it’s not 90 degrees).  Bend the piece and trial fit.  After verifying the bend is correct, and the piece still covers the hole evenly at the shear web, mark both ends for a flush fit to the skin and shear web.  It helps to put the LWA4 in place to accurately measure.  I left a bit long, and sanded tor a more precise fit.

Glassed the cutouts with 2 ply BID, after covering with micro and micro corner transitions.

Wing Bolt Depression CoverMicro’d in the LWA4’s and the LWA6 into the wing, making sure they were flush with the foam, so there are no humps when the shear web is installed.  I then used 5 min epoxy to affix the metal plates in place that cover the hole we made in the spar trough, so we will be able to lay the spar cap tape in the trough and not have it sag in the hole.  I then proceeded to cut out all the UND cloth for tomorrow’s layup and cleaned up.

After the hard points have cured, I sanded the corners down to the same curvature as the metal hard points.  Then taped newspaper around the spar area to protect the rest of the wing from epoxy.  Then sanded in preparation for the shear web layup.

Shear Web GlassingMicro’d the shear web area and started glassing per the plans.  Brandon and Kim helped half way in, which helped speed things along immensely!  Thanks guys!  Added peel ply, and realized I wasn’t quite done.  I cut back some of the peel ply around the hard points, and added th required 3 ply BID and epoxied the LWA2 and LWA3 hard points.  Added some weight, and added some nails to keep from sliding.

Cut the wing root to be perpendicular to the spar cap trough.  Then prepped for the spar cap layup.

Spar CapFilled the spar cap trough.  Took more plies then the plans showed, but it’s filled up now.  Added pour foam in the gap between the two leading edge foam cores, and micro’d the aileron access wedge back into the wing.  Spent the rest of the time preparing for tomorrows layup of skinning the bottom of the wing.  (I seem to be short on pictures of the bottom spar cap, so I attached a picture of the top spar cap, which is more or less identical.)

Bottom Skinning of Wing

Dad and David came over to help skin the bottom of the right wing.  2 plies UND at opposing angles.  Then the two supporting UND pieces at the wing root (2″ x 4″ and 12″ x 12″), as well as the triangular BID at the wing tip.  Was sure to add the peel ply for the wing tips and the aileron cutouts, and a flox corner for the access hole.  Covered in peel ply.

Got up at 4am to knife trip the edges and lay micro into the trailing edge, and then back to bed.

Finished cleaning up the knife trim areas with the file and sanded down the micro on the trailing edge to fair it in.

Put the jigs back together, flipped the wing over, checked for straightness and twist, and secured the jigs to the table with angle brackets and screws.  Sanded the trough to prepare for glassing, and covered the rest of the wing with plastic.  Added the Dams, and it is ready for the spar cap.

Spar Cap 2Brandon came over and helped me fiberglass the spar trough.  It takes a while to get all the spar tape wet out, and he did a good job helping.  Finished with peel ply.

Removed the dams and peel ply.  Trimmed the ends of the spar tape flush and rounded over the edges of the wing root.

Wing Foam OopsSanded the wing surfaces smooth and prepped the surface for glassing.  I accidentally broke the foam where it was hollowed out for the aileron tube.  I was able to use micro and nails to hold it back together.  Marked and routed the trough for the rudder cable to sit in.

Rudder Cable ConduitAdded a bead of micro in the trough, minus the last 3″ at the outboard end where the winglet will attach.  I also added duct tape to the last 3″ of tubing that lays in the trough, as well as the rest of the tubing, sticking out on the ends, to protect from epoxy.  Added nails at an angle over the tubing to hold it in place until after the micro cures.

Skinning Wing TopDave, Brandon, and Kim helped a lot today, as we skinned the top of the wing.  Filled in the top of the conduit trough with dry micro, as well as any gouges in the foam from releasing from the jigs.  Also, I used dry micro on the aileron, to ensure a light part.  Then we micro’d the whole surface and started applying cloth.  Two at angles the same as the bottom, and one additional the length of the wing, which does not go on the aileron at all.  Also added the additional plies toward the wing root and wing tip like on the bottom, and added the 3 plies of UND over the inboard hard point.  Finished off with peel ply over everything!

IMG_5475Carved out the foam on the outboard wing root with the Dremmel tool attachment to get a consistent depth.  Finished by sanding the bumps for a smooth surface.  Then I carved out the inboard wing root section.  Dennis and I did not carve out the shell when we hot wired, but we did cut off the wedge so we had the flat surface that is 90 degrees to the trailing edge.  Then sanded the foam completely out of .7″ of the edges all the way to the skin.  Also carved the other parts of the foam as described in the plans, making sure to leave the .7″ above the hard point.  In talking to Dennis, it sounds like I got my rudder cable too high, and will need to do some minor surgery.  The rudder cable Inboard Wing Root Foam Carvingwas coming out of the wing edge, which will not work when it comes to attaching the cowl, as it will be in the way.  Since I have not glassed the wing ribs yet, surgery will be easier.  Only problem is that the micro is pretty thick from gluing in the rudder cable conduit, so I will have to be very careful, as this minor surgery could have some major complications.  As it turns out, it was a non-issue, as the micro was easy to trim off.

Glassed the two 3″ pieces of UND that form an “X” around the bolt hole depressions.  Then glassed the 3 layers of BID on the inside of the outboard wing root, leaving the third layer extra long to cover the hard points.

SInboard Wing Rib Glassedpread micro on the foam, made my transitions in the corners, filled my trough where I dug the rudder cable out, and glassed the inside.  Dennis gave me the hint of cutting triangular pieces to cover the inside face and upper and lower surfaces only, then add the forward facing piece separately, and connect with BID tapes.  Now for the oaf story…  Since I believed this was done this way only because of all the angles and such, I decided to save the section where the rudder cable is coming out for last.  Poor judgement on my part, as I wrestled with that first layer forever while the forward facing cloth kept falling on me.  (Remember, the leading edge of the wing is pointing at the ceiling in the jigs)  Then I decided to lay up layers #2 and 3 on tin foil to transfer to the inside.  Good to use the foil, bad to lay them both at the same time.  I have had this happen before, and this confirms my thoughts.  In Rudder Cable Position After Surgeryorder to not get air bubbles, those layers need to be able to move around to form around all the joggles and divots.  Not a problem if you put them on one at a time, but wetting two plies and having the epoxy curing while you are working with it, certainly isn’t doing you any  favors.  Trust me, the time you think you are going to save by laying up multiple layers for these complicated surface features, you will spend again 10 fold fighting bubbles.  It is tight in the wing root, though it did help to cut the handle off the paint brush for stippling.  After all ply’s were now laid in place, finished with peel ply, and I will check frequently to make sure the air bubbles don’t come back.  Added the 3 plies over the hard point LWA6 and clamped LWA7 in place.  In hind sight, I just realized I only have 2 layers of the forward facing section of the wing root.  I have to add BID over LWA7 after cure anyway, so I will add the extra layer then.

Inboard Wing Rib Glassed 2Finished up by applying 2 BID on the forward face of the wing root (one extra ply total) and to also cover up the hard point.  Finished up with peel ply.

Posted in 19. Wings, Ailerons & Wing Attach | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

24 Hrs – Ch 14 – Main Landing Gear Cover

LG Cover Foam ShapeThe shed is complete, and took far more work during a busy summer than I was expecting.  While I’m waiting for control bearings from the Cozy Girrrls, I decided to build the LG cover.  I decided to take the Wayne Hicks approach to building this, for two reasons.  I won’t have to worry about the slugs in the LG bulkheads, and it was a very nice transition from the fuselage to the cover.  Since the indentations for the cover recess was already built into the fuselage, I didn’t really get to take advantage of the latter.  I started by cutting 2″ Styrofoam to fit into the LG cavity.  One sheet wasn’t thick enough to cover the NACA scoop, so I used some pour foam to glue two pieces of foam together.  I hot glued some wood scraps inside the LG bulkheads to support the foam while sanding.  I sanded the NACA scoop to contour, and the protruding foam to the same level of the fuselage.  Removed the foam, and added 3 layers of duck tape to the edges to match the thickness, and for release of the fiberglass.

LG Cover 1st LayupLG Cover 2nd Layup






Micro’d the foam inside the NACA scoop and covered with 2 ply BID and peel ply.  After cure, I micro’d the rest of the foam, made flox corners, and covered with 2 ply BID and peel ply.

LG Cover with Wood Foam Keeping StructureUsed a hack saw blade to get between the fiberglass and the packing tape to release.  Left the peel ply on and hot glued boards across the piece on the peel ply to hold the shape.  Peeled back the peel ply along the edges to mark the cut line.  Removed from the opening and started removing foam to 3/8″ as Wayne Hicks calls for.  I had to trim the cover at the leg openings so the cover would fit once the gear was installed.  I started by installing the MLG and putting the cover on until it caught on the gear leg.  I set a compass to the same distance that the cover was protruding, and used it to transfer marks on the cover, using the pointy end to follow the gear leg.  Turned out to be a simple technique, but one that is difficult to describe.  Continuing with Wayne’s method, I removed 1″ all around and sanded the fiberglass in preparation for glassing.  Using the compass for marking the 1″ proved to work well too.  Finished the night by rounding the foam edges, and the piece is ready for glass.

LG Cover Back Side LayupAdded 2 layers of fiberglass to the inside of the LG cover by wetting two layers on plastic and transferring to the piece.  If I had it to do over, I would have applied each layer separately, since all of the compound curves and angles made it very hard to get 2 layers to lay down properly, without air bubbles.  After getting all the bubbles worked out, I added a 2 BID strip around the area where the screws will fasten to hold the cover in place.  I did not run this all the way to the edge, as I was worried how the extra thickness would affect how it seated in the joggles.  Peel plied the edges and left for cure.

Trimmed the layup, removed the forms, and double checked for fit.  Snug fit, but I think OK.  Removed the gear bow and reinstalled the cover.  Hot glued some Popsicle sticks to hold the cover on.

LG Cover Mounting LipTurned the fuselage over, and sanded the forward and aft LG bulkheads for glass.  Cut some 2″ pieces of 2 layer BID on plastic and added in the corners of the inside to create a lip for the LG cover to rest on.  3 strips on the front and back bulkhead edges, for 6 total layers on each.  Finished with peel ply.



LG Cover Flange with LG CutoutsRemoved peel ply, turned the fuselage over, removed the cover, and trimmed the layup to 1″ width.  Smoothed the edges and added the cutouts for the LG.  Started measuring for where the nut plates will be installed.

Drilled out all the holes for the LG cover, and all the rivet holes for the attaching the nut plates.  Have to wait for the countersink to come in the mail, as I need these rivets to be LG Cover Completeflush.  I was able to use the countersink I had on the LG cover for the screw holes.

Received the countersink and riveter in the mail.  Countersunk all the rivet holes and installed all the nut plates.  Tested the cover for fit.  A-OK…

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Shed Project

It has been a while, but finally I am posting again!  At the end of my last post, I was taking a break from the plane to build a shed, to store some plane parts in.  I had figured roughly a 4 week project, but as it turned out, it was a little over 4 months.  Doesn’t help when you are building it by yourself during a busy summer.  I did have some great help from Jimmie, Dave,  David, Kim and Brandon during various key moments of the process, so I can’t take all the credit.

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31 Hrs – Ch 14 – Main Spar

Cutting Angle on Spar FrontCut the angle on the edges of the fore face of the spar and sanded.  I then cut out the foam for the seat belt brace blocks and mirco’d them in place.  Used duck tape to keep them in place for cure.

Holes Cut Into Spar FrontCut the access holes in the front of the spar, an routed 1/4″ of foam down to bare fiberglass.  Then I sanded the edges of foam to create a smooth transition for the glass to glass bond.

Wrapping Spar in GlassAdded 4 layers of UND alternating at 45 degrees.  Floxed the hard points in place, peel ply’d, and weighted.  Used a clamp on the ends to keep the hard point from sliding down with the weight.  Used a board to connect the inboard weights to the outboard weights so they also wouldn’t slide down.

Hard Points Floxed2

Trimmed the ends of the main spar, and started trimming the overhang from the last layup.  Used the file to clean up the edges.

Glassed the 2 layers of UND on the fore face of the main spar at 45 degree angles.  Covered in peel ply.

Hard Points Glassed

Removed peel ply, trimmed the fiberglass, prepped the surfaces, and cut out the strips of UND to lay over the hard points.  All ready for the next layup.

Brandon stopped by to help stir epoxy and we added the 3 strips UND over the hard points, and one 5″ BID over that.  Added peel ply.

Spar Ends GlassedCut the 1.5″ holes on the bottom of the main spar, under the outboard hard points.  Routed out some of the foam on the edges of the holes and filled with micro.  Then created flox corners around the edges of the end bulkheads (except where the spar cap is), and glassed the end bulkheads with 1 ply BID.  This concludes the Main Spar until I am ready to install it to the fuselage!  Now to build my storage shed…

Posted in 14. Center Section Spar | 1 Comment

88.5 Hrs – Ch 14 – Main Spar

Spar Foam In JigCut out the foam pieces for the main spar section after getting together all the foam needed.

Finished cutting the foam pieces to size and contoured the ends of the spar on CS2 and CS4.  Microed the 3 pieces of CS1 together, and called it a night.

Spar Box Inside Ready For GlassingMicroed the spar top, aft, and bottom pieces together and connected per the plans.  Instead of using the pine sticks to hold the spar bottom on perpendicular, I used the Wayne Hicks suggested method of adding the spar front section on, adding nails, and adding weight to keep everything in place.  Seems like it worked ok.

Cut out all the metal parts for the spar, and started filing down the edges where specified in the plans.  Then I microed the end caps on to the spar.

Cut out and shaped the interior bulkheads and marked the spar to show where the bulkheads and aluminum inserts will be placed.

Cut out the rest of the interior bulkheads and marked the rest of the measurements for the hard points.

Vacuumed the foam for the spar and cut out pieces of fiberglass in preparation of tomorrow’s layup.

Spar Box Inside FinishedMicro slurry’d the foam inside and added 1 ply of BID on the entire inside.  Added the inboard bulkheads, and added BID to both sides, lapping onto the sides.  Added the 3 plies of UND, then the LWA1, and added 1 BID.  Added 1 additional BID to the outboard bulkheads, lapping 5″, added the LWA1’s on each end, and covered with BID.  Added nails around the LWA1’s so they wouldn’t shift, and weighted down.  Added the center bulkhead and glassed both sides, lapping onto the spar.  I had micro’d the center bulkhead in place, like the rest of them, but for some reason, the plans say to flox that bulkhead in, even though none of the others are.  I will have to check with Dennis to see if it makes a difference.

Spar Box Cap glassed on Inside SurfaceTrimmed last night’s layup and drilled the 1″ holes in the interior bulkheads.  Covered the edge of the holes with dry micro.  In talking with Dennis, sounds like the “flox to connect the center bulkhead” was a type-o.  I slurried the inside faces of the fore facing foam, covered with 1 ply BID, and peel ply’d

Forward Face Micro'd to Spar BoxSanded the rough spots on the inside of the spar so that when I reach into the spar to add the wing attach bolts, I don’t cut up my hand.  Vacuumed everything and attached the top (forward) pieces, glass side down.  Added weight, and cleaned up micro leaking out the edges.

Traced and cut out the templates for the spar trough.  Then created a sanding block for the spar troughs.

Started sanding the top spar trough, but the template was not quite fitting over the spar.  It appears that when I laid boards along CS4 and added weight, it added some inward curvature, which caused the edges to have some gap which added some extra width when trying to lay the templates on the spar top.  Decided to wait until I could get a hold of Dennis before I moved on.

Spar Trough TemplatesIn talking to Dennis, it doesn’t sound like it should be a big deal.  Sounds like he uses the templates to drag back and forth to sand to the final shape.  In order to do this, I cut off the notch where they hang over CS4 (spar front).  Seemed to work pretty well.  Turned the spar over and repeated the process for the bottom.

Marked the locations for the LWA4 and LWA5 metal inserts, and routed out the foam down to the fiberglass of the inside layer.  Glad to see the center line mark for the inside layup showing through the glass.  Floxed the inserts in place and let cure.  Had some time left, so I cut out the shoulder harness blocks from 1″ x 1″ spruce, which will be inserted after the spar caps are done.

Sanded a radius on the edges for the shear web.  Micro’d the surfaces, and glassed 4 layers of UND at 45 degrees.  Finished with peel ply.  Trimmed the edges after cure.

Spar Trough Ready For GlassingCut out some 2″ strips of 1/4″ plywood and used as a dam for the spar trough.  Measured the trough size, and matched the height of the dam.  Screwed to the spar with drywall screws after predrilling.

Glassed the spar trough.  Glassed all 11 full span layers (maybe 12), and was able to get the sections at 64″, 61″, 55″, 40″, 36″, 32″, and 24″ from center.  I was not able to get layers in the 58″, 52″, 48″, 44″, and 28″ from center locations.  Not sure if I did not get the spar trough thick enough, or if the glass I used was just thicker than normal.  (The stuff I started with was certainly thicker looking)  I will have to get an opinion on that tomorrow.

Finished Top Spar CapAfter talking to Dennis (again), he verified I should try to get those layers in there (which I suspected).  After the first batch of layers was somewhat cured, I was able to run a bead of hot glue on top of my dams to add some height.  Added the missing layers in the spar trough, and added peel ply for final cure.

Trimmed the ends of the spar caps (top), removed the dams, and rounded the edge so UND will lay over later.  Turned the spar over, and added the dams to get ready for the next layup.

Repeated the spar cap layups for the bottom spar cap.  Finished with peel ply.  After cure, I removed the dams, cut off the ends, and sanded the edges to a rounded edge.

Posted in 14. Center Section Spar | 2 Comments

36.5 Hrs – Ch 13 – Fuselage Nose

Brake Reservoir Bracket Backing PlateCreated the backing plate for mounting the brake fluid reservoirs.  After verifying fit with the brackets, I floxed it into place and was able to add 1  ply BID along the bottom edge for good measure.  Took this time to add the 2 plies on the back side of the lift tab holes, too.  Then I took some various tubing and screwed them to the table on a piece of plastic.  Then I wet out 1 ply  BID, and cut into strips.  I made sure the strips were thick enough that they would lay over the tubing, tuck in along the bottom of the tubing, and still have enough for a flange on both sides.  After cure, I will cut these into 3/4″ pieces to use for cable and tubing supports.  Then I will be able to flox to the fuselage and cover with 1 ply BID.

Electrical ConduitI thought that before I close up the nose, it would be best to try to get everything done possible in the nose area, before it gets less accessible.  I routed some tubing in the nose for electrical conduit and glassed with 1 BID.  I also added one of my home made tubing supports for the pitot line as well.  Finished with peel ply.

Flushed out the pitot line and reinstalled in the nose.  Finished connecting the support with 5 Min Epoxy flox and 1 layer of BID with peel ply.

Xenon Headlight IgnitersCreated some metal bands to secure the igniters to the aft side of F0.  Mounted nut plates to the rear of the bands after bending properly around the igniters.  Note that before I attached the nutplates, I used the holes to drill the holes in F0.  Then I ran AN3 bolts through the front side of F0 into the nutplates on the other side to cinch the igniters tight against F0.


Forming Headlight LensesDecided to form some lenses tonight.  Started by cutting some pieces of the 1/8″ acrylic in the rough size.  Laid one piece on some t-shirt material, and put in the oven at 275 degrees to soften it up.  Then laid into the nose cone to get the curvature.  The piece was a little too large and would not curve completely, so I marked a closer outline and cut on the sabre saw.  Went through the process again and I go the curvature closer, but not close enough.  I will have to try the Wayne Hicks “composite Cleco” method to hold down the corners.

Nose Top TapesInstead of waiting for the weekend, I was feeling ambitious and decided to glass the bottom of the fuselage top and flox/tape in place.  Added the extra BID around the flange area as specified in the plans.  Used peel ply on the edges, making sure to leave enough room for the BID tapes after floxing back in place (or so I thought).  Since it’s hard to see the underside after it’s floxed in place, I found a few places where I laid BID tapes over peel ply.  I removed the glass from those locations after trimming the edges, and will have to fix during the next session.

There was some flox that needed to be cleaned up on the outside edges where I re-attached Nose Top Inside Tape Repairsthe nose top, so I cleaned that up with the Dremmel tool.  Then I prepared some BID tapes.  I started with inside, where I removed the sections of BID tape because I applied them over peel ply.  I reapplied new BID tapes over those areas and added peel ply.  Then I ran a bead of micro down the edge of the nose top, so there would be a smooth transition over any offsets between the two mating pieces.  Nose Top Outside Tapes(Note:  I don’t think it’s going to matter, but part of me wonders if I would have been better off using flox for that.)  I guess if a crack develops, I will have to fix it then.  Applied the 2″ BID tapes on the sides and peel ply added.

Created the foam piece to connect the nose top to the top of F22.  The plans drawing shows this being one piece, but the M drawing shows it as two.  I decided to make it out of one piece first and attach the canard to check for fit.  Turns out Nose Top Reinforcementthere were clearance issues, so I made it in two pieces instead.  Glassed the bottom of the piece, let it tack cure, then floxed it into place, adding 1 BID tapes to the bottom joints.

Glassed the top of the piece and peel plied.

Test fit the canard, but it was fitting too tight, so I decided to sand down the glass and some of the foam to make some more room.  Glassed with 1 BID and peel plied again.

Reservoir Bracket Mounting RepairsReservoir Bracket Mounting RepairsIn trying to connect the brake fluid reservoirs, they weren’t wanting to connect with enough space between the brackets for the reservoirs to fit.  In trying to make it fit, I ended up crushing the foam when tightening it up.  Cut out a section of the front glass where it was crushed, and removed the foam behind it.  I used the front glass I cut out as a template for drilling new holes.  I cut a birch plywood piece to fit in the hole, and then used the template I cut out to drill the new holes in the plywood.  Floxed into the hole after putting Vaseline in the nut plate holes.  Put some Vaseline on the bolts, and bolted the brackets on, which clamped the wood to the fiberglass backing till cure.

Removed the bolts and brackets, sanded, and glassed with 2 plies of BID.  Then peel plied.

Reservoir Bracket Mounting Fixed

Posted in 13. Nose, Nose Gear & Brakes | Leave a comment

20 Hrs – Ch13 – Fuselage Nose


Holder for Wilhelmson AEX UnitFar Forward Bulkhead/Battery Holder (Not in Plans)Far Forward Bulkheads



I have been working on the project, but I have been bad at updating my logbook lately.  Time listed is conservative, when you take into account there has been a lot of time spent figuring out the electrical wiring of the electric nose lift.  I tried fitting the lift in the opening and connecting to the strut.  I was not able to get the end of the actuator lined in NG4A so the bolt would go through.  Turns out NG3A and NG4A were not parallel with the strut.  At the time, I thought the strut was too thick.  I had sanded through the torsional layers, but that ended up being a mistake.  So after removing the NG3A and NG4A again, I added the torsional layers again and floxed NG3A and NG4A again.  I added the torsional layers again and floxed NG3A and NG4A again.  Tested fit again, and this time the end of the actuator wouldn’t quite fit into NG4A, but I devised a way to spread it apart a little so it would fit.  I found a bolt that barely fit into the opening, then I removed it and added a nut on the end.  Then I fit it in the opening and started removing the nut, which ended up spreading apart the ends.  This worked perfect, and the actuator Diagram of glass added to side of strut to Block NG3 From Slidingfit.  Than I added some layups on the sides to strengthen the NG3A and keep it from breaking loose and sliding down the strut on a hard landing.  I essentially used 2 strips folded back onto themselves to make 4 layers.  I also used a flox roll between the layers, up at the edge of NG3A, to make it a bit thicker there and block it from sliding.  Peel ply’d and let cure.Wilhelmson Nose Lift Installed

Fit the nose strut back into the fuselage and fit the electric nose lift with brackets into the nose assembly.  Connected with one bolt (per the instructions), marked the holes to drill on the brackets, drilled the holes on the drill press, and reassembled.  Tested with a battery.  Works as advertised!


Nose Bottom Carved

Carved the nose foam per instructions.  During the assembly of the nose bottom, I did not have the glass trimmed properly, figuring the excess would be hidden, but that bit me in the butt when sanding the curvature.  Sanding foam with glass in the Nose Bottom Glassedway, makes carving very difficult.  I cut out some of the micro and glass that was in the way.  Unfortunately sanding got a little too deep behind F0 on the pilot’s side, so I will have some finish work to do there.  Not too bad, but enough for me to notice.

Glassed the fuselage nose bottom, 2 plies BID, with an extra layer over the nose strut.  Finished with Peel Ply.


Slit Cut in Strut (Accident)Cut open the opening to release the nose strut cover from the fuselage bottom.  Ended up cutting too deep and cutting a slit through the torsional wrap by accident.

After consulting the Cozy list to see if I was going to have to remove the cover to fix, I found out that I would.  Turned out to not be a big deal.  The slit was 3.5″ in length, so I only needed to remove 5″ of the cover.  Added some flox into the slit and covered with 2 ply BID.  Let cure fora few hours, and then positioned the gear into the fuselage, and added the additional 3 plies to replace the part I removed.  Finished with peel ply, and back to forward progress.

Glassed the back side of the gear door with glass overlapping onto the front strut.  I used flox in the corner toward the bottom for a better hold, then used micro in the corners up the rest of the way.  Thinking this will help hold better, should there be a hard landing on the front strut.  Finished with peel ply.

Nose Top CarvedAfter talking with Dennis Oelmann yesterday, he gave me a few pointers on carving the top of the fuselage nose.  In using the template for carving the nose, it sounds like the carving template may have originally been for the narrower F28.  If you use the thicker F28 and use the template (presumably for the thinner F28), you end up with what looks to be a kink in the nose.  Regardless of the reason, I have seen where builders have had that issue, so I was listening…  Dennis recommended first installing the canard.  Then use a long flexible ruler (or something similar) and lay it from F28 to F0.  It will have to bend over the foam to get the proper curvature, and then I removed foam until there was a nice fit.  The most important part is to be sure that when the ruler is laid across the curvature, that there is a distance of 3/4″ to 1″ gap between the ruler Nose Door Glassedand the canard.  This extra thickness at that location should solve the issue with the kink in the nose.  I guess time will tell!  Then I started with the nose door.  I cut the 3 layers of BID out per plans, trimmed to proper dimensions, and transferred to the nose which I already had box sealing tape applied for release.  Added peel ply and wait for cure.

Trimmed the edges of the nose door and added 3 layers around the outside edge on the bottom side, 1″ thick.  Placed back on the nose and weighted in place to keep the proper form.

Marked the nose door on the nose after trimming the edges of the door.  Sanded down the foam for the door to fit into.  Wasn’t enough time to start glassing though.

Kim Glassing Nose TopNose Door Weighted to Ensure Fit





Micro’d the foam and added 2 plies of BID at 45 degrees.  The BID wasn’t quite wide enough for the whole nose section, so I had to have a small section of overlap.  Finished with peel ply and covered the nose door area with saran wrap and put the door in place.  Weighted the door in place with a wood contraption that I created that placed pressure along the edges.

Nose Door Cut Out

Nose Top Aft Edge Glassed





Started by cutting out the nose door, and then cut the top off that I just finished glassing two nights before.  Then I floxed the corner of the aft edge of the opening, and added 2 plies BID.  Finished with peel ply.

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