Chapter 09 – Landing Gear (Gear Leg Fairings) – 30 Hrs

Landing Gear Fairing SegmentPut the gear back on the fuselage and propped it off the ground with a 2 degree up attitude and leveled side to side.  I had purchased the pre cut cores from Eureka for this, and while a discussion on the forums discussed only needing 2 ply for these, I noticed that the foam that is used is the hardware store variety made by Dow.  Since this foam is much smoother than the foams we use normally, I was worried about Landing Gear Fairing Segmentdelamination, so I decided to also use 3 layers of BID to cover.  I removed the cores from the foam and cut into 2.5″ sections, making sure to label everything with Pilot/Copilot side, Top/Bottom, and 1-13 starting at the top of the gear leg.  Dropped a center line for the fuselage and used that to verify the fairings were aligned left to right, by dropping lines off the front and aft corners.  Also used a water level to be sure the fairings will be level when at a 2 Landing Gear Fairing Segmentdegree up attitude.  Micro’d these onto the gear leg, but used 5 Min epoxy/micro mix in the center of each so I could keep attaching sections.  Once both sides were done and all the micro cured, I started sanding the foam to remove the high spots.  Since the foam doesn’t bend around the gear leg perfectly.  Then proceeded to micro and fill the low spots and cracks with micro and glass with 3xBID.  Removed peel ply and trimmed after cure.

Landing Gear Fairings OutsideRemoved the gear and mounted upside down on the table to prep the bottom surface.  Sanded the foam intersections down smooth, as well as any extra micro.  Used the dremmel to remove the foam on the trailing edge, similar to the wings.  Micro’d the foam and laid up 3 layers on the bottom, lapping over the first layer similar to the wings.  After cure, filled in the trailing edge with dry micro and peel ply’d.

Landing Gear Fairings InsideLanding Gear Fairings Inside








001002Now that the brake lines are complete on the landing gear, it was time to close up the landing gear bulkheads.  Cut out the 3 pieces, and glassed the bottoms with 2xBID, overlapping by at least 1″.



Turned the fuselage over and prepped the surfaces for a 2xBID tape around the LG bulkheads.  After taping, added peel ply to finish.






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Chapter 23 – Engine – 11 Hrs

Engine 3
Found an engine at Wentworth Aircraft with 996 SMOH that was in an off field landing.  It is an O-360-A3A with chrome cylinders.  I was able to swap the stock starter for a light weight Skytek starter that they happened to have in stock.  Dad and I drove up together to look at it, where we met John Basol to scope the cylilnders.  Everything checked out, and Wentworth verified the crank dialed out to 0.00, which doesn’t get any better.  Wrote the check and drove home.  The crate ended up a little larger than I was expecting, so I needed a new plan for getting it off the truck.  John Tvedte was able to come over with his engine hoist, and we Hoist Completewere able to get it off.  I also ended up building the Tony Bengilis hoist using a come along.  Worked great!  I then built the plans engine stand, which also works great and keeps the footprint relatively small.  I purchased the engine preservation kit from ACS (Made by Tanis) and pickled the engine for long term storage.

Engine MountReceived the engine mount from the Cozy Girrrls at Oshkosh and noticed some rust spots on it in the day light the next day.  The engine mount is not painted or primed, so some of this is to be expected, depending how long this particular engine mount was in storage before delivery.  Sanded the engine mount with 220 grit, sprayed with degreaser (per instructions), wiped dry, cleaned with acetone and let dry.  Once dry, sprayed with self etching metal primer, and followed up with white high temp engine paint.

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Chapter 18 – Canopy (Part 2) – 84 Hrs

Canopy Forward PieceMarked the canopy to cut off the forward section.  Attempted to use Wayne Hicks method, but with all the bumps and joggles with the FHC, it didn’t work as well for me.  With needing to open the gap to 1/8″, I was able to even things out with the long board sander.  I also had to fix a few saw cuts, but otherwise it turned out pretty well overall.  Cut some 1/8″ pieces of foam to make the drip rail and fastened to the canopy with duck tape.  Applied 2x BID, 2″ wide for the drip rain and peel ply’d.

Front Piece Drip EdgeGlassed the foam where the saw cuts were using 2x BID and flox corners, and extending on the drip rail.  Floxed the forward piece to the canopy and used peel ply on flox in prep for glassing.

Front Piece Glassed PermanentlyGlassed the under side of the forward piece to F28 with 2x BID and peel ply’d.  After cure, glassed the top of the forward piece with 3x UND and peel ply’d.  Glassed with 6x BID for the canopy lip over the front piece per plans.

Hinge AlignmentNext was mounting the hinges.  Checked for fit, and noticed my canopy hard points are a bit  closer together than I thought.  The FHC plans say they need to be that far apart for the radio stack to fit, but it looks plenty wide for that.  Given that I am going with a glass panel, I’m not too worried about it right now.  These plans were made for the Cozy 3 which is a bit narrower, so understandable that the hinges are not the same dimension
Canopy Hinges in Actionto the fuselage sides.  With everything matching and clamped in place, I measured between the hinges to verify the hinges will open parallel to each other, and laid a level across the longeron and checked the canopy frame angles were parallel to the level when pressed against it.  Once everything was verified, we verified with the canopy on one last time, removed it again, and drilled the mounting holes through F28.  Used a 3/16″ twist drill bit, as I couldn’t find a #8 that was long enough to clear the forward part.  Wasn’t able to get a 90 degree hole in the top holes toward the inside, as the forward part again is in the way, so the bolt is at a bit of an angle.  After bolting in place, put the canopy back on and checked fit one last time.  Unbolted the hinges from F28 added flox to the angles that will connect to the canopy frame, and bolted back to F28, making sure not to touch the floxed portion to the canopy frame yet.  Mixed up some 5 min epoxy with flox, and after pushing the floxed hinge onto the hardpoint on the canopy rame, I put dabs of 5-min on the side with the flox, but there is not much room to work there, not visible, and limited time for the 5-min to set up.

Hinge to Canopy AttachmentIn trying to get the canopy off with the hinges floxed in place, it was not clearing the forward part and the hinges ended up coming off the pads.  Had to cut some clearance slots for the hinges to fit into to solve that issue.  Luckily the hinge bases left a perfect impression into the flox so I could still align it perfectly to drill the holes.  Drilled the 3/16″ holes on the pad side and up through the top.  Followed with a 1/2″ spade bit from the top for quick material removal.  Once close, finished up with a counterbore bit for a flat surface.  Bolted in place and test fit to find that I need to sand down the overhang lip over the forward part.  Also needed to increase the cutouts for clearance for the hinges.

Mold Taken for Instrument Panel CoverNeed to create the instrument cover, but with the thick pads for the canopy hinges, it won’t work per plans.  I ended up using the canopy as a mold and covered it with 2 layers of duct tape for mold release in prep for glassing.



Instrument Panel Cover FormingGlassed the instrument cover with 2x BID by using some scraps of glass.  Covered with peel ply.  Once cured, I prepped the instrument cover to glass in the curved piece behind the breakers at the top of the instrument panel.  Carved some urethane foam to fit in the opening that was left from using the canopy frame as a mold.  Hot glued the foam to the IP and added the 2″ in front of the IP for a glare shield.

Instrument Panel CoverGlassed 3 ply on the breaker cover portion of the IP cover.  Put peel ply down first, then 3x BID, and then peel ply again.  Was sure to put the first layer of peel ply under the OP so it didn’t interfere with adhering the two pieces together as one.

Now that the wedding is done, it’s time to get working on the Cozy again.  Figured out how I will lift the canopy while not having the latching system be in the way.  Ultimately I settled on the plans lay down gas cylinders.  My main issue with this was that with my latching system, I could not install the “Thrust Bolt” shown on page 20, section EE of the FHC plans.  This is because my latching system is mounted along the face of the longeron, instead of under Additional Hard Point Prepit, like the standard plans.  This is not in the FHC plans, but is a design by Ed Richards.  To solve this, I decided to move the thrust bolt further forward, and create something to attach to the canopy to take the loads of the gas springs.  This will take the place of C8A in the FHC pans, and this will be adjustable for future maintenance.  With this figured out, I was able to determine where my hard points would need to be installed.  Once figured out, I removed the Additional Hard Pointsglass and foam for the hard points, then proceeded to start grinding away the glass around the hard points in layers to prepare for scarf joints.  Once ready, I taped around the hard points and completed the glass/flox layups for the hard points.  After cure, I created paper templates of the layers needed for the scarf joints and cut all the glass.  Then layed up all the layers with 1 extra BID covering, and covered with peel ply.

Finished Hard Point PatchAfter cure, I started to attach the gas shocks.  Drilled my holes in hard points to attach the ball studs and counter bored the holes so I could attach the nuts.  I then moved to the attach points on the longerons.  I cut out two 1.1″ x 2.5″ pieces of 1/4″ 2024 T3 aluminum and drilled holes per FHC plans.  Then used the holes in the aluminum as a drill guide, drilling the 3/16″ holes through the longerons, placing AN3 bolts in each hole after drilling.  With the bolts in place, I
Canopy Shock Ball Studused the 5/16″ hole in the aluminum as a guide to counterbore the longeron far enough for the ball stud to clear.  Since I needed it to fit in the hole with the nut fastened, I opened th hole up to 5/8″.  Counterbored the holes running through the longerons and was ready to assemble.  I had to remove 3″ of the instrument panel inboard from the longerons for the gas shocks to lay down properly.  Hooked up the shocks to test, but found that the shocks are not strong enough to hold the canopy open Gas Shock Mountingand do not open far enough to get in easily.  For replacement shocks, I was able to measure from ball stud to ball stud in both the closed and fully open positions to get the compressed and extended lengths, but I didn’t have access to a spring scale strong enough to measure the force needed.  Then I realized that I had known values of the 90 lbs  each for the shocks that I had, so I just needed to attach some twine around the ball studs and measure the amount of force needed to lift the canopy.  52 lbs additional on the fish scale to lift the canopy.  I settled on the Strong Arm 6922 gas shocks, with 14″ extend length, 8.75″ compressed length, 123 lbs, 10mm sockets for both sides.

20151013_223124.jpgI then started with the latching mechanism.  Measured for the holes to drill through the longerons.  Once measured, I drilled the 5 holes on each side.  Four for the latches and one for the outside handle.  Counter bored the 4 latch holes on the outside and fit the attaching hardware.  Drilled through the shoulder brace for the draw rods to pass through.  Attach all the latching hardware together to test fit.  Once fitting correctly, floxed the permanent pieces to the fuselage.

Once the flox cured, I assembled the latch 20151013_223132.jpgmechanisms, reattached the canopy, and realized that the widening of the canopy made it so the hard points are hidden over the longerons and I canopy attach the canopy hardware per the plans.  After far too much trial and error, I had Kim make some 90 degree 2xBID over a 2×4.  After cure, cut them into strips (1-2″) and 5 min epoxied to the side of the canopy, after lining them up correctly to the latches.  Added 2xBID on the Canopy Latch Hard Point 2 Canopy Latch Hard Point 1





Canopy Latch Hard Point 3bottoms, and realized that I had to auger out a  cavity on the inside of the front latches to get a bolt into it.  After that, I could add 2x BID on the inside of each as well.  Lined up the latch hardware and bondo’d in place long enough to match drill the holes through the hard points.  Removed the hardware, opened up the holes for an AN3 bolt, and tapped the holes on the hardware.  Had to add additional layers to the bottom of the hardpoints to get the spacing correct and get the latches to work smooth.

Instrument CoverRemoved the canopy to finish up on the IP cover.  Cut the sides off to build a cavity for the gas shocks.  Built up the cavity and glassed 2xBID in the cavity.  Finished with another ply covering the rest of the IP cover for a total of 3 BID.




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Chapter 18 – Canopy (Part 1) – 175 Hrs

I’ve been hassled to get an update out on the Cozy build. I am currently working on the Canopy chapter, and I have several modifications here, so it is taking me more time to complete than I had hoped! I also got engaged a few months ago, which in addition to some other side projects has slowed things down a bit. I’m at a good point for an update, so here it is…

Turtleback BulkheadI have the Featherlite turtleback that I got as part of the project I purchased, which I decided to modify to meet my needs for more head room. We started by cutting out the front turtleback bulkhead and Kim glassed it with 3 plies BID and 1UND on the horizontal portion. After cure, we repeated the process on the back side.


Turtleback-Adding Width and HeightSince I am making my turtleback 2″taller and 2″ wider, I started by finding the center of the turtleback and cutting it along it length and micro’d a 2″ Clark foam wedge to make it 2″ wider in front, and the same size in the rear. Glassed with 2 UND on the outside. Marked a line on the sides about 1″ above the flange and cut the flanges off with the Rockwell saw. After cleaning up the edges, I micro’d a 2″ Clark foam wedge to raise the canopy 2″ in front. Glassed with 2 UND on the outside and peel ply’d.

Attaching Firewall to TurtlebackThe turtleback was too long from Featherlite, and needed trimmed.  Since I added height and width to it, it was no longer perfectly perpendicular in the front and back. The front should not be an issue, but the rear needs to be flush with the firewall. I decided to mark the 46″ length on the flanges first, since that will be the most accurate place to measure. Then I secured the firewall against the rear of the turtleback. (Note the turtleback needs to be on a level surface) I made sure the Securing Firewallfirewall was plumb in relation to the table, and measured the distance from the firewall to my marks. They were 1.9″ from the firewall on both sides. (Perfect) Then I measured 1.9″ from the firewall in several locations around the outside of the turtleback that I could connect the dots. After drawing the cut line, I cut it to length for a perfect fit to the firewall. Much easier than some of the other methods I’ve seen, so I’m happy that worked! Sanded and cleaned up some of the foam pieces that were micro’d in last night in preparation for glassing.

Turtleback BulkheadChecked the TB bulkhead for fit, and marked the inside of the TB for reference. Marked the cut line on the inside per plans, and drilled the holes for reference. Then I decided to glass the inside over the three foam wedges I added (2 UND). The clark foam is a bit thinner in thickness than the honeycomb that Featherlite uses, so I have a bit of a gap to fill. Applied micro and covered with 2 ply UND in opposing orientation per plans. I had to wet the first ply on plastic and transfer it, so I didn’t have to worry about it soaking up any micro in to the glass. Finished with peel ply. With my leftover time, I created the 1.5″ strip that is used for the drip rail and 5 min epoxied it into one long piece. Glassed in the drip rail with 2 BID and 1 UND per plans.

Windows Cut into TurtlebackTurned the turtleback over and marked the outside cut line and started marking out the windows. I did this per the FAQ instructions, but I found out that the lines did not look right. Came to the conclusion that as long as the windows follow the lines of the exterior, that is what you are looking to achieve. My process is:

  1. Draw the horizontal lines per the FAQ.  (I made mine slightly higher to get above the 2″ wedge I added for height)
  2. Measure 2 1/8″ from the cut line to determine the inside vertical edge of the windows, so they are parallel with the cut line.
  3. Measure 5 1/4″ in from the front of the TB to give a parallel line to the front of the TB
  4. There was no dimension given from the firewall to the window in the plans, but the FAQ says 38 7/16 from the FRONT of the TB at the bottom, so I used that mark.  I then measured that mark to the firewall, and made a similar mark for the top of the window to get a parallel line.  Note that I already made the aft end of my TB plumb.  The front is no longer completely plumb, since I raised it.

I then proceeded to cut out the window openings starting with a hole saw and an oscillating tool making sure to leave the material proud, so I can sand to the perfect dimension.  Completed that and started removing all the nomex honeycomb.  To create a cavity for the plexiglass to fit into.  Removed the 1″ strip as shown in the plans, and began fitting windows.  Continued fitting windows into the TB.  Both copilot side windows cut for fit, and taped up on the outer surface with 1/8″ gap between tape and TB.

Prepped the rest of the windows, drilled the holes for the cleco’s, and floxed the windows in place.  After cure, I am finding out that epoxy from the wet flox seeped into the edges of the tape where they overlap another piece of tape.  Another contributing factor is the bulb was burned out in the epoxy box, so I was starting with colder epoxy than normal.  The curing of my wet flox may have warmed up the mixture enough to make the epoxy run out of the flox easier.  Bummer!

I was able to get the excess epoxy off the windows by VERY CAREFULLY using a razor blade to get under it.  Dennis tells me to be very careful with the razor, as any scratches can cause the plexi to crack later!  Finished up with lining up the turtleback and firewall to be floxed together.  Bondo’d the upper firewall to the lower firewall with angle aluminum, making sure everything was square and plumb.  Floxed the turtleback to the firewall using 1/4″ spacers under the turtleback.  At this point, I realized I needed to round off the back edge of the upper firewall so I can wrap glass around it.  Will wait until the flox cures now.  After cure, I drilled 1/4″ holes through the flange of the turtleback and into the longerons in the back half of the turtleback for locating pins.  Then cleaned up the edges where the flox squeezed out.  Rounded over the back edge and taped inside and out to connect the turtleback to the upper firewall permanently.

Placed the canopy on the fuselage and approximated it’s position.  Added layers of electrical tape to the rear edge to protect the outside while I figure where my cut line will be.  Used pallet wrap to create streams that I taped to the inside of the canopy using electrical tape, but that eventually all came falling out because it was too thick and flexing the canopy taking it off and on caused it to detach and fall inside the fuselage.  Ended up  placing multiple layers on the inside of the canopy as was on the outside when I received it, and it seems to be staying much better.  Cut out the BL0 template, but it seems everyone says it doesn’t match up.  I placed the canopy on the turtleback so the nose of the canopy was at the correct position fore and aft, and the template matched up almost perfect.  Since I raised the canopy 2″, and widened it 2″, and went with the texas canopy, perhaps that is the difference?  I will need to trim at the instrument panel 1/4″, since it is currently resting on it.  I will know for sure after I trim at the rear for length and can get a good trial fit against the turtleback.

Window StripFloxed in the fiberglass strips I cut out around the windows back on the larger windows and covered with 1 BID and peel ply.  Only did the one and left the turtleback upside down so the flox couldn’t run out.  Used the left over fiberglass to glass the brake conduit back in place on the main landing gear.  Repeated the process for the smaller windows, and turned the turtleback right side up for cure.  Then floxed in the hard points, since I confirmed with Ed Richards that his latch system keeps the same positioning per the plans.  2 BID over the top of the hard points and peel ply.

Since I removed 1/4″ to clear the instrument panel, I attached a 1/4″ temporary spacer for the canopy to rest on while working on it.  Cut out my templates and adjusted how far they extend inboard to account for the wider canopy.  (trial and error)  After cutting the rear of the canopy for length, I used the templates to find my tape lines.  I decided to do a sacrificial tape line below the line so my real tape line can butt up to it.  Masking tape doesn’t stretch, so it holds a straight line better, but don’t use long term, as it will be hard to get back off.  I took a tip from Tim Andres to get some 3M painters tape from the auto paint store, which I purchased 1/4″ and 1/8″.  I butted the 1/4″ next to the masking tape, and 1/8″ butted against that, then 3m electrical tape butted next to that (3 tapes wide)  Then covered the 1/4″ and 1/8″ painters tapes with electrical tape to protect it.  Then over that, I placed 3-4 layers of duct tape for the fiberglass to butt up to.  Taping is tedious Taping for Fiberglass Transitionwork, but will pay off later.  The fiberglass will end up butted up to the 1/4″ tape.  That will be removed in the finishing stage and the 1/4″ of canopy sanded for a micro filler transition from glass to canopy.  Then the 1/8″ tape is removed and 1/8″ of canopy sanded to prepare for everything being painted for a very smooth transition.  After this was done on the outside, everything is matched up on the inside.  I had a lot of trouble with the duct tape pulling off on the inside close to the front where the curve is tighter, so I recommend using short2-3″ pieces to help keep this from happening in these areas.  Then I started building my wood frame Canopy Inside Support Structurefor the foam blocks to rest on.  Since I am leaving 1/4″ for a seal between canopy and longeron, I need these raised more than a few layers of duct tape.  I added 1 layer of duct tape on the longerons and installed the boards 1/4″ above the longerons.  Then I needed to add a spacer on the longerons which I did by slicing strips of blue foam at 1/4″ and using “Great Stuff” foam to glue it onto the duct tape covering the longerons.  After drying, I sanded the tops flush, and theGlassing Turtleback to Canopy sides to the proper curvature.  (Looking back, this didn’t work out as well as I had hoped and ended up with air bubbles where the overlap transitioned from canopy to fuselage.  Something to be aware of.)  Then covered everything with a layer of duct tape.  Added a few layers underneath that layer to protect the fuselage side.  Placed the canopy on for a test fit, and floxed the canopy to the turtleback.  Added the 1 UND at the bottom of the canopy.  After cure, added the 3 BID vertical strips to secure to the turtleback.  After that cured, I started cutting blocks for the canopy frame.  Using the technique illustrated on Charles Furnwager’s site works very well to get a perfect fit the first time, but the process still takes some time.

Gluing Canopy Deck FoamAfter finishing cutting out the foam blocks, I glued them all together with Great Stuff spray foam.  I made sure to put some wax paper under all the blocks to ease with canopy frame removal in the future.

Began the process of shaping the canopy frame, using the templates as a guide.  Since I raised everything 1/4″, I had a bit of a gap to the fuselage sides for glassing.  I cut strips of 1/4″ x 1/2 foam and micro’d into the gap, holding with nails.  Once cured, I was able to sand down to a closer profile.  I will still have some gap, but much better.  Sanded in my depressions from the forward hinge canopy plans, and marked my cut line, and hopefully ready for glassing.

Glassed Canopy Deck TopI ended up cutting a pattern for pre-cutting the glass.  The plans call for 2 pieces at 45 degrees, but I confirmed with Dennis it could be in more pieces if I stagger the joints.  I chose to make it in 3 pieces, front and 2 side pieces.  I pre-cut out my 2 BID, 2 Carbon fiber, and 2 UND.  Vacuumed  and micro’d my foam and laid my first BID into the valley around the canopy.  Filled the valley with flox and laid the rest per plans.  The forward hinge canopy plans call for 2 ply carbon fiber sandwiched between the BID and UND glass, which I did.  Sounds like a lot of people say the carbon fiber isn’t needed and is over kill.  I don’t know of anyone flying the forward hings canopy without the carbon fiber, so I kept it in for piece of mind.  Completed all 6 layers with the help of my lovely assistant, and covered with peel ply to cure.

Canopy Support StructureRemoved the peel ply and trimmed the front to be flush with F28.  Then I started building my canopy frame supports and bondo’d them to the canopy frame.  I also decided to add a little more strength to keep the canopy from sagging while sitting on the table.  Figured it a good time to replace the hardboard on my work table, and used the old hard board for the support.  Worked the edges loose with a hacksaw blade which released easier than expected.  Once released, I moved the entire top to the table, and continued to cut the turtleback free.  Not floxing the rear turtleback in place proved helpful here, as it was hard to cut through the turtleback flanges all the way through without boogering up the outside skin.  I was able to turn the canopy frame upside down to finish freeing it.  I was then able to clean up the edge of the rear turtleback and glass the drip rail.  With the canopy upside down, I was able to begin mapping out my hard points and contour the inside foam.  After some research on the forward hinge canopy, and thinking through the geometry, I figured out how the hinges would need to be mounted.  Three main things to watch out for:

  1.   Be sure the foam is removed all the way to the skin so that the hinge pins can be mounted as close to the outer skin as possible.  The hard points for the hinge pads will probably have to be built at an angle for this to work properly.
  2. Be sure the hinge pads are level in relation to each other, or you will risk binding.
  3. The cut line needs to be aft of the hinges, or things can pinch.  If you thing of a teeter totter on the playground, you know the only part of the board that moves up, is on one side of the hinge, and the other side actually moves in the wrong direction, and will cause pinching on your canopy.  The further rearward from the hinge, the better for this endeavor.  Hopefully it will be that easy, so time will tell!

Exothermed Canopy Hinge Hard PointI have been unfortunately been dealing with some setbacks in this portion.  After getting the main hinge hard points figured out, (which required me to build up the aft edge of the hard point by 1″, essentially creating a wedge) I glassed them with the flox/BID process spelled out in the plans.  I should have known better, but I got distracted and ended up completing these very thick hard points in one layup.  I was on the last layer, getting ready to peel ply, when the layup Canopy Hard Point Fixstarted to exotherm!  I attempted to get a fan on to cool it down and opened the garage door, which allowed me to keep it from starting a fire or melting through the upper skin, but the whole layup heaved and cured completely un-flat.  I ended up having to remove the Canopy Hard Point Fixmelted foam from around the hard points after cure, and grind most of the hard points out.  I then built up the surrounding area with new foam and got all my angles correct again.  I waited to shape the outside of the foam area until after the hardpoints were completed this time too, in case I ran into more issues.  This time I completed the hard point in multiple layups (2 large, and needed one additional for a minor touch Finished Fixed Canopy Hinge Hard Pointup)  After cure, I was able to fair the surrounding foam into the rest of the foam on the canopy frame.  Then continued to fill the rest of the hard points.  I am waiting to do the hard points for the gas springs until I have a better idea what the best positioning should be.  It will be much easier to handle the canopy not having to worry about dinging the foam or having things sag.  Since I am having the canopy top extended lower than the longerons to help prevent air leakage, I ran into some issues with air bubbles in the 3/4″ below the longerons.  With the carbon fiber, this is impossible to see, since it is completely opaque.  After grinding out the bubbles with the dremmel, I am able to fill in the areas with more carbon fiber, so the thickness will be Fix Canpoy Air Bubblesmore consistent when the inside layers are applied.  I also found that there were significant gaps between the canopy and turtleback where I added the foam wedges to add width and height, since it didn’t match the curvature as well.  Here I ground down the turtleback on the inside where it stood proud, then added a thin layer of flox and 2 BID over it to patch.

Back Arm Rest KeeperPatched up the air bubble locations and floxed and 2 BID the rear arm rest guides to the rear seat bulkhead to stiffen it up when installed.

F28 StiffenersCut out the F28 doublers and floxed onto F28.  Glassed with 3 ply BID.  Since I made the hinge pads larger on the canopy to facilitate moving the hinges more inboard, I made the doublers wider to accommodate too.

Glassing Inside Canopy DeckGlassed the inside of the canopy today (partially).  Glassed both sides with 2 BID, 2 Carbon Fiber, and 2 UND per the forward hinge canopy plans.  I left the overlap sections staggered at the front so I can come back and finish the front.  Covered with peel ply, and finished up the front section of the inside canopy after cure.


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175hrs – Ch 24 – Covers and Fairings

I haven’t kept best track of this chapter, as there is a lot of thinking how things are going to fit, and is also a good time to get other little things completed on the interior. Since this chapter consists of making covers for all that stuff, it’s good to have the stuff in there to guarantee a proper fit!

Electrical Contuits In Place 2Started cutting out the foam for the armrests and fastened the pieces together with drywall screws. Realized that I would need to have my electrical conduits in place before finishing the covers, so I added them in next. Created foam molds for the conduits, covered in tape for release, and glassed with 2 BID.


Front ArmrestI started fitting my arm rests in the front seat, and realized that I needed to install my electrical conduits, rudder cable conduits, and brake lines first. I decided to to the electrical conduits in chunks and have removable armrests to access the cabling. Floxed them in place, and followed that by adding the rudder lines. Then I determined the position of my brake lines to the brake actuators. While I have the fuse on the left side, it was a good time to try out the landing brake. As it turns out, the previous builder attached one of the brackets with the nuts in the middle of the channel, and the actuator cannot clear when running. I created a new bracket with a longer base so I can position the nut in an area where it will not be in the way.  I would of liked to have turned the bracket around, but there was not enough hardpoint NACA Scoop Wideningthere to drill new holes and keep secure. I have also been modifying the NACA scoop, as they should not come to a point as the plans state. There should e a 1.5″ section that is completely smooth with the belly for good cooling.  Something I first learned in the CSA newsletter, and reinforced at Rough River last year. That being said, I sanded down the NACA scoop flat at the tip, and will finish up with some micro and glass.

Additional Supports for Control HardwareAgain, I have been bouncing between projects, and taking care of misc items. After sanding down the tip of the NACA scoop, I realized I sanded too much foam, which is easy to do, since the foam sands off much easier than the fiberglass. I created a dam and used pour foam to replace. Finished with two layer of fiberglass.

Similar to Wayne Hicks, I have glassed in a couple of triangular pieces to the control blocks to strengthen them, so I have the option of removable armrests. While I had the torque tubes out, I decided to prime them with Dupli-color self-etching primer. Also opened up holes in the bulkheads where clearance was needed. Traced out Hanka Spring 2and glassed the front seat thigh supports. After cure, cut them to the final dimensions. Created the jigs for the Davenport pitch trim spring, and the Hanka roll trim spring and glassed.

Davenport Spring 2Work continues on the left arm rests, as I figure how I will proceed. Decided to go completely removable, Ala Wayne Hicks. I also adopted his solution to the transition urethane, and just completing it with more of the PVC. Continued with building the rear left armrests, also fully removable. Added the 45 degree sliver on the inside for support. Glassed the inside with one ply BID and peel Front Armrestplied. Realized the rear armrest was touching the torque tube when fitted, so I had to extend the arm rest and glass it .

Prepped the outside of the front armrest and glassed with 2 BID. Finished with peel ply. Kim glassed the top of her thigh support with 2 plies BID and peel ply. Finished prepping the left rear armrest, and glassed with 2 ply BID.

Offset of Front Console SidesThe center console isn’t technically part of this chapter, but may as well be. Started by figuring out the basic shape I was looking for. After looking at some other sites, and taking into account my throttle quadrant, I decided to keep the rear section narrow for added hip room, and the forward section would be wider to fit the throttle. The height in the front will be higher so the Curved Armrest for Fuel Shutoff Clearancethrottle will be at the relative same height as the stick. I took a lesson from John Basol’s site and curved the rear section of the center console to leave room for the fuel selector switch. I highly recommend (as do others) to build a mock-up with cardboard, and sit in the fuselage to rest for fit. After doing this, I cut out the sides from 3/8″ PVC, and glassed the inside with 1 BID. Oriented the side plates of the throttle onto theThrottle Quadrant Hard Pointsinsides, and matched drilled, and installed nut plates on the throttle body plates. Cut some sections of phenolic block for hard points to connect the throttle body to the center console without crushing the foam. I had to use this technique because I hollowed out some foam to make room for the throttle, and it turned out I didn’t need to. The other hard points I will be able to make out of flox. I then placed 6 plies BID over the corner of a 2×4, and cut 1.5″ pieces after cure for hard Center Console Mounting Bracketspoints. Bondo’d the center console with throttle assembled to it into place and then floxed the 90 degree pieces onto the heat duct so the center console can screw to it. After cure, I drilled match holes through both so the center console will be removable. I then put some release tape on the side of the IP and glassed the center console to the release tape, so I can add another mounting point there.

Front Console 2

Duplicated the armrests for the passenger side using similar technique. Decided to make some 90 degree tabs for mounting the arm rests to the fuselage, similar to how the center console is mounted. Did this by laying up 6 BID over the 90 degree edge of the 2×4 Right Angle Layups for Mounting BracketsMounting Bracketsand cutting into strips after cure. Then I aligned tabs on the arm rest to the other edge will lay on the fuselage side, and match drilled a #12 hole through both pieces and added an AN3 nut plate to the bracket. Put in an AN3 bolt to hold it together, and then floxed all the tabs to the fuselage and used clamping pressure to hod in place. After cure, I just unbolted the bolts, and removed the arm rests from the tabs, which are now part of the fuselage. Then ground off any excess flox, and added more flox to fill in gaps.

Armrest HardpointsDremmeled out around the holes and filled with flox to make a hard point, and covered with 1 ply BID, and covered with peel ply. Re-drilled the holes through the hard point, and checked for fit. Cut out foam for the rear center console and assembled with drywall screws. Cut out the pieces for the seat pans, seat bulkheads, seat backs, and center console and glassed with one ply BID.After floxing the rear center console together and BID taping, glassed the outside with 2 BID. Also glassed the other side of the seat bulkheads, and seat backs with 2 BID. Cut the 1″ slits in the seat pans to contour to the curvature of the front seats. Bondo’d to them temporarily and glassed with 2 BID.

Continuing to work on the seats, arm rests, and consoles. Glassed in supports for the rear consoles. Did this by attaching them temporarily to the arm rest first, then floxing the bottoms of the tabs onto the center console. After cure, I removed the screws and removed the console. Glassed the seat bulkheads in place. Cut 3″ hinges for the front seats, back seats, and rear seat backs. Anodized the hinges and attached the hinges to the rear seats.

Cross Hair CenteringHave the rear center console with the matching holes 1/8″. Had the idea of drawing cross hairs showing the exact center of the hole. Then routed the holes to about 1/2″ in diameter, making sure not to go all the way through the glass on the rear. Put some masking tape over the inside holes, and filled the cavity with flox and covered with 1 BID. Once cured, will extend my cross hairs again and find my center, and re-drill my holes with a #12 bit in place. So I also drill through the mounting tabs for a perfect match drilled hole. Then glassed the hinge area of the front seats. Seat Hard PointsNot in the plans, but a good idea to secure the seat. After cure, I re-extended the cross hairs and re-drilled on the drill press. Put in place, and match drilled through the supports. Added nutplates for a perfect fit.


Landing Brake Actuator CoverCut out the foam for the belly board actuator, 5 min then together, and glassed with 2 ply BID. After cure, I secured it in place and added the 2 BID flange around the outside edges to secure later.




Front Cabin AreaRear Cabin Area

Posted in 24. Covers & Fairings | 1 Comment

26.5Hrs – Ch16 – Controls

Control Blocks GlassedI had already cut the birch CS109 and CS117 pieces.  Normally you wouldn’t fiberglass these until after you flox them in the fuselage, since it wouldn’t need much more glass to cover than the BID tapes anyway, but since I am using click bonds to secure the bearings, I wanted fiberglass to flox them to.  I marked where the holes would normally be drilled with a punch, then used a compass to draw a circle around the mark, so I can align the click bonds easier when I flox them on.  Added 1 BID to the sides that will get the clickbonds, peel ply, and set aside for cure.

Cut out all the additional tubing to size and began cleaning up the edges.  Sanded the cut pieces of tubing in preparation for connecting.

Torque Tube Assembly

Started drilling and assembling the parts for the controls.  First hole was not as expected, as I didn’t have good luck with the drilling a small hole first, and opening to the #12 like the plans state.  I used the #12 bit right away, and the results seemed pretty good.  There were a few holes I would have liked to have had more vertical with the others, but all in all, I can’t complain.

Measured and marked the position of the bearing blocks.  A water level is a big help with this.  Turned the fuselage on the left side and sanded the glass around where the bearing blocks connect.  Bondo’d in my blocks for floxing in the blocks.  During floxing, I Torque Tube Bearing, Washer Interferenceaccidentally twisted the block too much, and the click bonds popped off.  (as they weren’t glassed in place yet)  Floxed them back on and weighted for cure.  I will try floxing the blocks in after the clickbonds cure.  I also found when drilling my holes in the control tubes for a tight fit, my tubing didn’t fit nicely against the washers.  Turns out that the problem was that the washers are too big and overlap onto the two holes for the Torque Tube Bearing Washer Modificationsnap ring pliers, where as the rest of the washer fits inside the snap ring, causing the washers to fit at an angle.  I was able to notch my washer to get it to slip past the snap ring holes, but that left me with some play in the bearing that needed a snug fit.  I was able to double up on washers on the side opposite of the snap ring, and I only had to file a little off the adjoining part to secure the snug fit I was looking for.  Controls are MUCH smoother!  Duplicated my work on the other side, but need to order a couple extra washers.

Control BlocksFloxed the bearing blocks in place after sanding the hole in the seatback and LG bulkheads a little larger for clearance.  Fiberglassed the bearing blocks to the fuselage with 2 BID on each side.  Put shrink wrap over the click bonds to protect them from epoxy while fiberglassing.  The fiberglass bunched up around the clickbond post some, so I will have to evaluate after cure.

Turned the fuselage over and floxed the bearing blocks in using the same technique as the left side.  Allowed to cure.

Torque Tube and Stick

Glassed both sides and lapped onto the fuselage.  I was not real satisfied how the BID separated around the clickbond post, so I added some scraps as a patch and the smaller piece didn’t separate as much.

Aileron Bellcrank

Blocked up the controls so the stick was at the proper angle, and the bellcranks at the firewall were as well, and drilled the last of the holes in the torque tubes. Then I floxed the CS123 bearings into the firewall and bolted the torque tubes together so there was no sag. 

Testing Elevator Push TubesThen proceeded to build the push rods for the elevators. Installed the canard to check fit. 

Created the foam molds for the electrical conduits, covered in tape for release, and glassed with 2 plies BID. Glassed into place in the fuselage. Similar to Wayne Hicks, I glassed in triangular pieces to help support the control blocks, so I can install removable arm rests. Painted the control rods with Dupli-Color Self-Etching primer.

Electrical ConduitsElectrical Conduits

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30 Hrs – Ch 20 – Wingletts

Winglette-Inboard PreppedCreated the 1″ top tips of the wingletts, rounded the corners, and prepped for glassing.  Glassed the wingletts with 2 ply UND and finished with peel ply.

Winglette-Outboard Glassing2Removed the wingletts from the forms and began prepping them for the next layup.  Finished prepping the wingletts and trimming the forms from the hot-wiring.
Cut the poles of the foil tape antenna to 20.3″, and soldered the RG400 coax center and shield to the poles.  Sanded a depression for the antenna and coax, and micro’d the antenna in place and covered with peel ply, leaving the antenna still recessed so I can still put micro on before skinning.  Also put micro in the groove and placed the coax in to pot that in place.

Winglette Antenna2

While removing the peel ply from the micro, I realized that I forgot to add the torroid coils to the coax before potting in place.  Will worry about it after Rough River and vacation.

After messing with removing the coax carefully, thinking I could salvage and add the torroids, I accidentally ripped out part of the antenna.  At that point the decision was made, and time to focus on removing the old antenna’s completely.  Doing so required a little cosmetic surgery to my original grooves, essentially making them a little deeper, but not too bad.  Made the new antenna’s with the torroids, placed in the grooves, and potted again with micro.  I decided to add some BNC connections to verify the connection with my portable, and they work great!

Winglette-Inboard MicroSet up the wingletts for glassing the inboard side.  Bondo’d the wingletts to the foam templates, and the templates to the table.

My friend Jeff is looking at the Cozy design as a possible build project, and he came over to help skin the other side of the wingletts to get some experience.  I filled in the coax impressions with micro before skinning, but left a little more of a divet after skinning than Winglette-Outboard GlassedI expected.  In hindsight, I probably should have used pour foam like Wayne Hicks, which would have saved me some trouble.  Skinned with 2 ply UND per plans + 1 BID square, and peel ply’d the entire layup.  Trimmed after cure.  The basic pieces for the wingletts are done, but I will not attach to the wings yet, since the wings are so much easier to store without them attached.

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25 Hrs – Ch 19 – Wings/Center Spar Attach

Wing AlignmentI hauled the center spar out of the basement and rearranged the garage to prep the spar and wings for match drilling.

I spent all day Sunday getting the wings aligned to the spar, with little luck.  Every time I fix one thing, it causes something else to be off.  In trying to keep the waterline on the wing completely level, my hard points are not matching up.  Thinking that I will have to add some dihedral into the wing to get things to line up, but will sleep on it before I commit to it.

Wing Span in GarageAfter getting a warm fuzzy from Dennis, I continued with aligning the wings to the center spar.  I ended up having to add a little dihedral into the wings to get the hard points to match up correctly.  At the outboard ends of the wings, the waterline is .9” – 1” higher than the 17.4” waterline.  The plans state that the dihedral is a non critical component for alignment, and this is a minor change in the wing angle, so I am not concerned.  I Bondo’s the wings to the spar, and drilled my ¼” holes through the wing hard points.  Ron White stopped by to check on my progress and gave me a few tips.  It’s always good to hear that things are looking good.

Wing Spar DrillingRon had a 5/8” bit with a ¼”pilot at the tip that he loaned me for match drilling the holes between the Center Spar and the Wings.  I spent most of the night drilling out the hard points.  I had to switch from my cordless drill to my larger electric drill, and even then, the motor was getting pretty hot!

I spent some time removing the bondo from the wing/spar.  I attempted a dry fit, but I had to raise the wings and spar about 12″ so I would have room to insert the bolts, then spent several hours cutting the bushings to length.  I was sure to number them all, and positioned them so the number on the bushing was positioned top center for consistency.

I had to repair a delamination on the inboard right wing hard point with 1 ply BID and peel ply before floxing the bushings in.

Sanded the outside cadmium coating off the bushings, and floxed them in place in the wings and spar.  Placed the bolts in place and tightened up with Nylon washers, so flox will not stick to them.  I will check after cure, but it appears that I will need 1 extra washer on the left-lower-outboard bolt to make up for the 0.3 degree difference between the wing and spar.

After cure, I removed the bolts and found some flox oozed on to the bolts and threads, which made some of them hard to get apart.  After removing the flox, I reassembled everything with the correct hardware (minus the AN nuts) and checked for level again.  Still looks like I will need an additional “L” washer in the Left-Lower-Outboard bolt as a shim, as first thought.  Then I put a foam plug in the front of the spar for the inboard holes with 2 ply BID, and added the 1 BID on the aileron inboard wing hole that I still needed.  Finished with peel ply.

Posted in 19. Wings, Ailerons & Wing Attach | Leave a comment

90 Hrs – Ch 19 – Ailerons

Cutting the AileronsCut the ailerons out per the dimensions.  Here is where I come to find out that the peel ply that was put on during the wing skinning has now become my nemesis.  I apparently screwed up the placement of this in three different ways (my all time best).  (1) I took one of the measurements (outboard)from the very end of the aileron, instead of 12″ inboard from the end.  This places the peel ply further into the wing than you want.  (2) I put the peel ply on the wrong side of the Ailerons Cut Outhotwire opening, which puts the peel ply in the aileron, instead of in the wing.  (3) I put micro on the whole wing before putting the peel ply on, which makes getting the peel ply off almost impossible!

I augured out the foam and tried getting the peel ply out, which only worked for the top side where the hinges attach on the left wing.  The top of the right wing is the part where the peel ply is in the aileron, so it just needed the micro to be sanded off.

Peel Ply in AileronAfter talking with Dennis for advice, I sanded the section with the stuck peel ply the best I could with a Dremmel tool and sanded down the foam smooth on the edges.  Dennis also recommended sanding down the foam inside the trailing edge rib to give more space for the counter weight.  When asking about the peel ply stuck in the aileron, Dennis said not to worry about that one, since there is a BID ply that wraps around the counterweight and attaches to fiberglass on either side, so I won’t have to worry about delamination at that point.  Hallowed out the side ends of the opening and rounded the opening for the aileron torque tube.

Floxing Weight on the AileronSince I decided to wait to glass the trailing edge spar til the weekend, I went ahead and started on the aileron.  Started by removing the foam sliver to attach the steel rod to.  In talking to Dennis, he warned me not to take any more off than needed.  The plans say 3/8″, but Dennis recommends 1/4″ instead.  You will need to sand a little more foam out of the trailing edge spar area for clearance.  Instead of putting the TE of the aileron in foam to micro the steel rod to, I laid the aileron down on my table with the edge on a strip of duct tape for release.  Placed 2 screws behind the trailing edge in the table (not the aileron) to act as a back stop for applying pressure.  Then I micro’d the slit where I removed the 1/4″ foam, and placed screws in the table behind the steel bar to keep the bar from coming off.  Wedging a single Popsicle stick between the screw and the steel bar, seemed to be the perfect amount of clamping pressure.

Wing Rib 2Glassed the inside of the TE spar.  3 Plies BID, 1 extra BID at the hinge locations (per plans).  The ends of the aileron cutout are also glassed at this time.

Aileron Hinge GapAfter trimming the last layup, I marked and cut the hinge depressions.  I then turned my attention to the aileron, where I created the depressions for the metal hinge plates and for the A10 torque tube.  I took the Wayne Hicks approach, and 5min epoxied an angle straight edge to the hardware to ensure all the hinges will be on the same plane and not get any binding.  Once Torque Tube Openingit was secured, I 5min epoxied the A10 torque tube behind the hinge plate.  Once all the hardware was secured, we micro’d all the metal parts onto the aileron.  Used some clamps and weight to keep things tight to the aileron.  Performed the same for the other aileron.

Glassing Front of AileronThe skin protruded slightly from the foam and hinge plates, so I took my long sanding board and sanded it down and also rounded the fiberglass edge at the same time.  Micro’d the foam, and added 1 layer BID on the ailerons.

Glassing Ends of Ailerons

Routed out the .4″ of foam in the ailerons and had to use the Dremmel to file down some of the micro to get the depth.  Glassed the ribs of the ailerons with 2 ply BID.

Attaching Hinges to WingI cut my angle iron down to fit inside the aileron opening.  I bondo’d the hinges on the inside  of the angle iron after marking the correct positions.  This allowed me to run the machined edge of the hinges along the inside corner of the angle iron, and insure all the hinges are in perfect alignment.  Then I took the assembly to the wing and c-clamped the hinges in position.  Drilled the #30 holes, and then opened to #12 per plans.  Hold in place with clecos and checked movement of the hinge assembly.  Not too bad.  I do notice that the inboard hinges binds a slight bit, so I Attaching Hinges to the Aileron for Drillingwill have to investigate.  (Just needed a little sanding of fiberglass to flatten.)  Started to line up the aileron, but I need to sand down some glass to get the counterweight to clear the aft wing edge.  Long tedious process.

Installed the ailerons into the openings with boards clamping them into position.  Then I used the hacksaw blade trick to align the hinges to the correct location on the ailerons.  Then I mixed up some bondo and put dob on the hinge half to adhere it to the aileron.  This method gives me plenty of time to mix and apply the bondo, rather than the other ways I’ve seen where you have to hurry to get the aileron aligned before the Riveting Hinges to Aileronbondo or 5min epoxy dries.  Since the bondo is only being held on at the edge of the hinge, be sure to let the bondo cure fully.  I did not on the first attempt and my hinges fell off when I removed the aileron.  Then I started drilling my 1/8″ rivet holes.  I started with 2 cheap non-aviation rivets in each hinge to begin with to check fit.  Assembled the whole assembly and checked for binding.  All was good, so I drilled the rest of the holes, and drilled out the cheap rivets to remove the hinges.

Prepared the hinges and used the Alumiprep and Alodine to protect the aluminum.  Removed the hinge pins for this process.

Sanded the hinge half that was receiving flox and the hinge pads on the ailerons.  Applied wet flox to the hinges, and riveted them in place permanently, using tape to protect the hinge pin area from getting any flox.  Cleaned up the excess flox, and had to cut the tape out from behind the hinges, as it wouldn’t come out.  Checked hinge movement one final time, and set aside to cure.

Checking Aileron FitPut the ailerons in and started checking my gaps.  Plans say they should be at .08 to .2.  I was shooting for about .12.  Normally I would want to keep at the minimum distances, but there have been issues in the past with the counterweight catching on the wing in high G turns.  There was an extra ply of BID added to the hinge locations to solve this years ago, but I figured no sense in tempting fate.

Attaching Bearing Rod to Torque TubeFinished adjusting the gaps, and then started working on the aileron controls.  Drilled the holes in CS151 and the universal joint.




Right Wing Controls

Aileron Torque Tube OpeningFitted the aileron, but ran into clearance issues with the bolt in the outside side of the universal joint.  The plans show that bolt as opposite direction as the inboard side, but Dennis confirmed they should both be running for/aft to line up with the oblong hole in the wing.  Now I was able to mount the aileron, but wasn’t able to get full motion with the bolt hitting.  Used the die grinder to auger out the foam some more.  Ended up having to auger all the way to the bottom skin, and I’m still not sure if I am rubbing.  Doesn’t sounds like it, though.  Ron will be coming over sometime soon to take a look, and he suggested getting the bearing floxed in place first, and then see where I am.

Aileron Bearing - Clickbond InstallAileron Bearing - Clickbond Install 2

Floxed the clickbonds for the spherical bearing in place, after adding a couple extra plies of BID for reinforcement.  Clamped in place with some wood blocks.  Also added the replacement BID over the inboard hard point and peel ply’d.  Added BID 2 Ply over the clickbonds for the spherical bearing.  Used some lipstick on the boot of the U-joint to see where it was rubbing, then used the die grinder to grind into the skin from the inside.  Will need to add a BID on the outside surface and 1 layer on the inside to help reinforce, but the U-joint no longer rubs on the skin.

Patching Unused HolesThe holes I drilled into the wing for mounting the brackets was .4″ off and CS128 would not clear the wing root.  Moved the brackets .4″ inboard and everything fit much better.  I will need to patch up the unused holes with flox and 1 BID to fix.  Also realized I need to order some additional parts like (4) M4 rod ends and associated hardware.  Will finish up once it arrives.Aileron Control Hardware

It’s been a busy month, and garage time was a little scarce.  I tried to get in the garage as much as possible, and fussing with the aileron control hardware has been a slow process…  I did receive the replacement hardware, but the AN4 holes in the CS128 brackets are tripping me up again.  When using the wide area AN4 washers in place of the AN3 variety, it adds too much to the diameter and interferes with the wing.  To solve this, I Aileron Control Hardware 2drilled out the wide area AN3 washers to fit.  Assembled all the hardware to find that the vertical bolt connecting CS128 bell crank to the rod end is rubbing on the lower CS127 bracket.  In searching other sites, this appears to be somewhat common.  I was able to elongate the mounting holes for the lower CS127 bracket, so it sit lower, which gave me more clearance.  With everything mounted correctly, I adjusted the rodends so everything is 90 degrees with the ailerons in trail (per plans).  The Cozy Girrrl CS128 are nice in that they have a center hole drilled in them so you can run along AN3 bolt through them for this alignment.  Clamped the ailerons in an in trail position.  The plans have you drill the hole through CS152 and the CS132 bell crank at this time to lock everything in position, but if you get the CS152 and CS132 parts from the Cozy Girrrls, that hole is predrilled, so you have to figure out how to drill through CS151 and CS152 instead.  I ended up putting a dab of 5min epoxy on the lip of CS152 before slipping it into CS151 and bolting everything into position.  After cure, I removed everything, used electrical tape to ensure the tubes wouldn’t move out of position, and drilled the hole.  Added the bolt, and reassembled everything for a perfect fit.  At this point I noticed the rivets on the rod end rubbing, and smoothed everything out in preparation for 2 layer glass BID.  Prepped the area in the aileron wing root for new glass.

Aileron Torque Tube Opening GlassedGlassed 1 layer inside the aileron torque tube hole, and 1 layer over the pushrod clearance area.  Than added 1 layer over the CS127 attach bolt holes, and added flox from the other side to close up the unused and elongated holes.  Re-drilled the elongated holes at the proper position after cure.

Floxing Clickbonds for Aileron AttachFloxing Clickbonds for Aileron Attach 2

Used the Dremmel to rout out the aileron hinge holes to make room for the click bonds.  Used the grinder to dent the edges of the clickbonds to prevent spinning, cleaned with acetone, and installed into the wing with flox.  Covered with 1 ply BID and peel ply.  After cure, I had to wallow out the holes on the hinges for easier removal.

Left Wing Controls

Drilled out the hole in the wing root with a uni-bit, and cleaned up with the Dremmel.  Had to grind out the aileron torque tube hole to clear the bolts on the u-joint.  After verifying clearance for travel, I cut the torque tube to length.  Knowing that the plans are not accurate in the placement of the CS127 brackets, I did not us the measurements as gospel.  Instead, I started by measuring 6″ out from the inside wing root face, which is where the center of the bolt going through the bearing should be.  Transferred the mark to the front face and drew a vertical line for the outboard bolts.  I then used the measurements from the plans for how high to drill the upper bolts, and used the holes in CS127 to get the spacing correct.  Then I proceeded to drill the fop 2 holes only and fastened with bolts.  I bolted my rodends at this time so I can check washer clearance for the inside root face, and bolt clearance on CS127.  The bolt to CS127 clearance was thin, so I spread the CS127 brackets apart a little to add some clearance.  Once it all looked good, I could shine a flashlight on the inside and see where the light shines through, and marked the holes for drilling.  Drilled the holes and fastened everything together.  The rod wouldn’t clear the fiberglass, like on the right wing, so I augured it out with the die grinder.  Everything now seems to be clear.

Finished prepping the surfaces for glass, and glassed my modifications.  There was also an air bubble on the inside hard point, so I ground it down and put a new layer of glass on it, making sure to put some saran wrap on it to help keep it down.  Put 2 layers of BID where the clickbonds will mount,m and floxed them in place while mounted in the bearing.  Clamped in place, and peel plied everything I could.

I did end up having some clearance issues on the u-joint area.  I tried the lipstick trick on the bolt heads and u-joint, but no luck.  I could still only get 18 degrees up aileron.  Took all the torque tube hardware off, and I was able to get 28 degrees.  Then added pieces back on one at a time until I found the culprit.  Ended up being the bolt (tread end) on the inboard side of the u-joint.  Augured out some foam, and we were back at 28 degrees.  Set up and drilled the hole for the rodend and CS152 like the right side.  Then prepped and glassed over the clickbonds for the root end spherical bearing.  Covered in peel ply, then saran wrap and mounted the bearing back in place til cure.

After adding the glass for the clickbonds, the thickness buildup was too much to connect the bolt hardware.  I had to re-drill the hole through the torque tube to get the proper clearance.

Now that the torque tube is corrected, I was able to install the click bonds for holding the aileron in place.  Routed out an indentation on the top of the wing, installed the clickbonds from the top with flox, and covered with 1 ply BID.  After cure, I pried the aileron off the clickbonds, and again had to wallow out the holes on the aileron hinge so they would remove easily.

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85 Hrs – Ch 19 – Wings (Left)

Time to repeat all the steps again for the left wing.  Started by cleaning up the jigs and setting them up on the table.  Then I glued the wing root wedge back on to the inboard wing section (FC1) with Micro.  Did the same for the wedge that was cut out to gain access for hot wiring the aileron torque tube area.

Positioned all the foam cores in the jigs to verify fit.  Then glued FC1, FC2, and FC3 together with micro.

Attached Depression GlassedCut out the depressions on the top and bottom of the wing for the bolt access.  Then glassed with 2 ply BID.  Trimmed at knife cure and micro’d in the 3 hard points, LWA4’s and LWA6.  It’s worth noting when working on the left wing, the drawings are all backward.  I already knew this, but it is easy to get distracted and forget you have to be thinking backwards when looking at the Micro'd Hardpointdrawings.  That being said, I accidentally cut out LWA6 on the bottom side, rather than the top.  Luckily I noticed it right away, and not when drilling the holes to match it to the spar.  Kim cut out a replacement plug to fill the hole, while I cut the LWA6 into the correct position.  Micro’d in the plug, and secured all the pieces with nails till cure.

Sanded down the foam at the rough edges, and rounded the corners of the spar cap.  Taped off all the edges and hung paper to protect the foam.  Then cut out all the pieces of fiberglass in preparation of tomorrow’s layup.

Hardpoints AddedCompleted the shear web layup.  Applied 2 layers UND full span, 2 layers 2/3 span, and 2 layers 1/3 span, with every other layer alternating in direction.  Added the 3 layer BID pad over the hard-points, and added LWA2 & LWA3, and weighted for cure.  Peel ply’d the layup.

Glued FC4 & FC5 onto FC2 & FC3 using micro.  Verified the gaps for the spar trough and weighted the foam.

Spar Cap GlassingFaired in the foam joints with a sanding block to even them out.  Taped and papered the other edge of the spar trough and added the dams in preparation of the spar cap layup.  Sanded the trough, vacuumed, and set up the spar tape dispenser.  Completed the spar cap layup, and peel ply’d.

Adding NAV AntennaSanded the depressions for the NAV antenna, making sure to have a 20 degree angle and not more than 1cm distance betweenAdding NAV Antenna the poles.  Micro’d in place so I don’t have to mess with it during the skinning.  Also used micro to fill in the foam joints the rest of the way, using masking tape to keep it off the foam.

Skinning Left Bottom WingFinished prepping for skinning the wing by vacuuming the entire surface and cutting the fiberglass pieces.  Glassed the wing bottom same as on the right wing.  2 UND and extra 2×4 UND and 12″ x 12″ UND by wing root, and BID triangle at the wing tip.  Peel ply’d everything.  Knife trimmed and troweled micro into the trailing edge.

Sanded down the trimmed edges, including the trailing edge.  Then sanded down the pile of micro that was added into the trailing edge divot.  Added the jig pieces to prepare for turning, and used bondo to hold it together.

Turned the wing over and leveled.  Seemed that the edges of the spar trough were not sighting flat, so I investigated.  There seems to be a small hump at the foam joint (outboard).  I ran a string for both the leading and trailing edges, and while I tweaked them a little, they were nothing like I was seeing at the joint.  I will have to sand it down a little to fair it in, but shouldn’t be a big deal.  Certainly wont affect the spar cap.  Sanded the trough, added the dams, vacuumed, and set up the tape dispenser.  All ready for the morning when Dad gets here to help.

Spar Cap for Left Wing TopFilled the trough with fiberglass tape.  Used a couple (2) more layers than plans recommended to fill the trough.  Lost power while adding peel ply, so we got pretty lucky we were finishing up.  It was also lucky that it was fairly warm out, so we could open the door for light.  Many thinks to Dad for coming down to help!

Left Wing Trailing EdgeSanded off the boat tail on the trailing edge and sanded down to the rest of the surface.  Pulled off the peel ply to find the trailing edge coming off in pieces on the very edge.  In consulting with Dennis, this sometimes happens, and he gave me some suggestions.

Drilling Conduit at Wing RootMarked and routed out the channel for the rudder cable.  Used a drill to auger out the portion on the end past the micro line.  Ready to micro in place.  Finished prepping the wing for tomorrow’s layup and micro’d the rudder cable conduit into the wing.

Glassing Wing TopSkinned the top of the left wing similar to the right.  Since the trailing edge broke off when pulling off the peel ply, I finished with putting a straight edge on the trailing edge after skinning, so I can cut a nice straight edge when cured.  (suggestion from Dennis)Straight Edges Clamped on Top Skin

Trimmed the layup and cleaned up the edges.  Attached the level board.  (For some reason, I decided to sand the inboard end after cleaning up the edges, so I lost my level line for reference.  to Fix this, I traced a pattern of the foam core template with the level line.  Matched it up to the inboard end of the wing and transferred the marks.)  Then started hollowing out the foam for the inboard rib.

Glassing Inboard Wing RibGlassed the inside of the inboard wing root with 3 plies BID.  Started by glassing everything but the forward face, then glassing the forward face separately and following up with 3x BID tape.  Finished by clamping in the LWA7 hard-point.  The hard-point sticks over the edge of the hard-point that is below it a little, so hopefully that doesn’t cause any clearance issues when the bolts are fitted.  Time will tell…

Inboard Wing Rib GlassedCompleted the 2 UND strips around the attach depressions, and then the 3 BID to make the inboard wing root.  Added 2 ply BID over the hard-point inside the inboard wing root.  Finished up with peel ply.

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